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a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to the king, in exchange for thier loyalty, military service and protection of of the people who live on the land


belief in multiple Gods


a political unit governed by a deity (or by officials thought to be divinely guided)


a fine-grained unstratified accumulation of clay and silt deposited by the wind

Shang Dynasty

the imperial dynasty ruling China from about the 18th to the 12th centuries BC


Egyptian goddess of fertility

Cultural Diffusion

the spread of cultural elements from one society to another


a document written on papyrus

Harrapan civilization

An ancient Indian culture , dating back to 2500 BC, that included the people of the entire Indus River region


an area in the southern region of Babylonia in present-day Iraq


the land between the Tigris and Euphrates


Babylonian king who codified the laws of Sumer and Mesopotamia (died 1750 BC)

Dynastic cycle

the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties


an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds

Fertile crescent

A large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland


monumental architecture typical of Old Kingdom Egypt; used as burial sites for pharaohs.

Mandate of Heaven

a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source


the ancient Greek known as the father of history


an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia

Cave Paintings

Prehistoric wall art


people trained to write using the earliest forms of writing before literacy was widespread

Catal huyuk

One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions


an ancient city of Sumer located on a former channel of the Euphrates River


humans and other creatures that walk upright

Bronze age

(classical mythology) the third age of the world, marked by war and violence

Neolithic Revolution

the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC

paleolithic age

second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC

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