Terms in this set (55)
Change influenced by its environment; ex: a neighboring sound
A change that's NOT sensitive to its environment
Where one sound becomes more like a neighboring sound
Loss of a sound
Sticking in of a sound
Change in order of two sounds
Different kinds of sound change include:
Change originating WITHIN a single variety. Main mechanism of linguistic change
Change originating OUTSIDE the variety (borrowing). Play a minor role in linguistic change
Internal change is taken to be at the heart of the ____________________________.
Neogrammarian family tree approach to change
What type of change is most common in cases of LEXICAL borrowing? (ex:pajamas, rouge)
Cases of extensive lexical borrowing are always from a _______________ prestige variety to a _________________ prestige variety.
HIGH prestige variety to LOW prestige variety
Is it possible to borrow structure from one language to another?
What type of change does NOT fit neatly within the Family Tree model of change?
Labov's inference depends on a crucial assumption, namely that ______________________________________
individuals' rates of use of variants remains stable across the lifetime. (apparent time hypothesis)
Different behaviours associated with different phases of life
APPARENT time evidence of change:
evidence from comparing use of a given feature across different age groups collected in a relatively short period
REAL time evidence of change:
evidence based on a comparison of language use in a population at two (relatively far apart) points of time
2 types of real time data are:
trend data and panel data
Trend data is..
a sampling of the same population at different points in time
Panel data is..
a study of the same speakers at different points in time
Lecture 12: Code Switching
Code switching (CS) is..
use of two or more languages in a single SPEECH EVENT
(conversation, speech etc.)
Intra-sentential CS is..
use of two or more varieties within a single SENTENCE
Switching b/w two languages at the sentence boundary. That is, from one sentence to another
Switching before a tag
CS by many Spanish-English bilinguals in the US, on the other hand, is often been viewed as a consequence of _______________________.
What is Poplack (1980) study about?
A study of Spanish/English CS among Puerto Ricans in NY (East Harlem)
Poplack proposes two syntactic constraints on CS:
You can't switch between a root and an affix
The equivalence constraint:
CS will tend to occur at points where the constituent order of the two languages is the same.
it's not the case that code-switching is unsystematic or a consequence of a lack of grammatical competence in one or more languages, much rather the opposite
Speaker with HIGHEST degree of proficiency do the greatest amount of ________________________.
Language shift is..
the process by which speakers of a language ABANDON their language for another language
Language death is..
the point at which a language has NO MORE NATIVE SPEAKERS
The causes of language death are never ___________, but rather _______________..
Never LINGUISTIC, but rather SOCIAL.
Causes of language shift:
Overt institutional repression
ideological factors means..
anguages are abandoned partly because of the social meaning
situations of widespread individual multilingualism where the diff varieties are functionally distinguished
Outgroup use of minority codes
Lecture 12: Pidgins and Creoles
A language variety created for communication between groups
Do Pidgins have native speakers?
Pidgins are NOT used:
between members of a single group. also the vocal is limited
Are languages with native speakers that have developed out of pidgins. Creoles are learned as a FIRST language rather than as a second language by their speakers.
Creoles are used:
Between members of a group, have expanded grammar;
Pidgins and creoles are created by contact between:
A SUPERSTRATE (or lexifier) language. This is the language used by the more powerful group.
And one or more SUBSTRATE LANGUAGES
creation of a pidgin
a pidgin develops into a first language variety
Creole continuum consists of three things:
Acrolect, Mesolect, Basilect
most formal & prestigious close to standard superstrate
most colloquial, least prestigiousmost removed from superstrate
In cases of prolonged contact between the creole and the superstrate, __________________ may occur
Common properties of Pidgins and Creoles:
Little or no morphology
Reduced vowel and consonant inventory
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