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178 terms

MIS chapter 8

STUDY
PLAY
When you purchase a personal computer, it usually has a ______ ______ installed on its hard disk.
system software
System Software
consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices
Two types of System Software are:
operating systems and utility programs
Operating Systems (OS)
a set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources
Some operating systems allow users to control a ______ and administer _______.
network; security
In most cases, the OS resides on the computer's ____ ____.
hard disk
On handheld computers and many mobile devices such as smart phones, the OS may reside on a _____ chip.
rom
A ______ computer does not use the same operating system as a personal computer.
mainframe
Platform
the operating system that a computer uses
Cross-Platform Program
one that runs the same on multiple operating systems
Booting
the process of starting or restarting a computer
Cold Boot
when you are turning on a computer that has been powered off completely
Warm Boot
the process of using the operating system to restart a computer
A warm boot properly closes any running programs but does not _____ any ______ work.
save;unsaved
Kernel
the core of an OS that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs, and assigns the computer's resources , such as devices programs, data, and info
The kernel is _____ ______, which means it remains in memory while the computer is running.
memory resident
Other parts of the OS are _______, that is, these instructions remain on a storage medium until they are needed.
nonresident
The boot process, is _____ for small and large computers.
similar
Registry
several files that contain the system configuration information
Startup Folder
a list of programs that open automatically when you boot the computer
Boot Drive
the drive from which your personal computer boots, in most cases drive c
Boot Disk/ Recovery Disk
contains a few system files that will start the computer
When you purchase a computer, it usually includes a boot disk in the form of an ______ ______.
optical disc
Shut Down Options
powering off the computer, placing the computer in sleep mode, and hibernating the computer
Both _____ mode and ______, which store the current state of all open programs and documents, are designed to save time when you resume working on the computer.
sleep; hibernate
Sleep Mode
saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions, and then places the computer in a low-power state
Hibernate
saves any un open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer
User Interface
controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen
Two Types of Interfaces
graphical and command-line
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
what most users today work with, you interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands
Some GUI Operating Systems provide access to _________ interfaces.
command-line
Windows Aero
provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation
Command-Line Interface
when a user types commands or presses special keys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions
___________ interfaces, give a user more control to manage detailed settings.
command-line
Command Language
the set of commands entered into the computer
Single User/Single Tasking OS
allows only one user to run one program at a time
Early systems were ______ ______/ ______ ______.
single user; single tasking
_____ _______ and other _______ devices, often use a Single User/ Single Tasking OS.
smart phones; mobile
Single User/ Multitasking OS
allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time
In a Single User/ Multitasking OS, both programs can run __________, and users today typically run multiple programs _________.
concurrently; concurrently
Foreground
the active program you are currently using
Background
the other programs running but not in use
Some Operating Systems use _________ multitasking to prevent any one process from monopolizing the computer's resources.
preemptive
Preemptive Multitasking
when the operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed
An Advantage of Preemptive Multitasking
the operating system regains control if one program stops operating properly
Multiuser OS
enables two or more users to run programs simultaneously
Networks, serves, mainframes, and supercomputers allow hundreds to thousands of users to connect at the same time, and thus are _______.
multiuser
Multiprocessing OS
supports two or more processors running programs at the same time, involves the coordinated processing of programs by more than one processor, and increases a computer's processing speed
Fault-Tolerant Computer
continues to operate when one of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost
Fault Tolerant Computers have _______ components such as processors, memory, and disk drives.
duplicate
Airline Reservation Systems, Communication Networks, Automated Teller Machines, and other systems that must be operational at all times use ____________ computers.
fault-tolerant
The Purpose of Memory Management
to optimize the use of random access memory (ram)
Virtual Memory
the os allocates a portion of storage medium, usually the hard disk, to function as additional ram
Because _____ memory is slower than RAM, users may notice the computer slowing down while it uses _____ _______.
virtual; virtual memory
Swap File
the area of the hard disk used for virtual memory, swaps data, information, and instructions between memory and storage
Page
the amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time
Paging
the technique of swapping items between memory and storage, very time consuming for the computer
When an OS spends much of its time paging, instead of executing application software, is is said to be _______.
thrashing
Windows ReadyBoost
can allocate available storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache
A task, or job, is an operation the ______ manages.
processor
Tasks
receiving data from an input device, processing instructions, sending information to an output device, and transferring items to storage to memory and from memory to storage
A ______ ______ ______ does not always process tasks on a first-come, first-serve basis.
multiuser operating system
Buffer
a segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device
The Operating System commonly uses ______ with printed documents.
buffers
Spooling
the process that sends documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer
Queue
when multiple documents line up in the buffer
Print Spooler
a program that intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue
Driver (Device Driver)
a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device
Each device on a computer, such as the mouse,keyboard, monitor, or printer, requires their on specific ______.
driver
Plug and Play
the operating system automatically configures new devices as you install them
Operating Systems typically provide a means to establish ________ connections.
internet
Performance Monitor
a program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and devices
Automatic Update
a feature that automatically provides updates to the program
Bugs
errors
Service Pack
many software makers provide this which is free downloadable updates to users who have registered and/or activated their software
Server Operating System
an operating system that organizes and coordinated how multiple users access and share resources on a network
Examples of Resources
hardware, software, data and information
Some Operating Systems have ______ features built into them, while in others, the server operating system is a set of programs _______ from the OS on the client computers that access the network.
network; separate
When NOT connected to the network, the client computers use ____ _____ operating system.
their own
Network Administrator
the person overseeing the network operations, who uses the server operating system to add and remove users, computers, and other devices to and from the network
The Network Administrator also uses the ______ Operating System to install software and administer network security.
server
Administrator Account
enables computer and network administers to access all files and programs on the computer or network, install programs, and specify settings that affect all users on a computer or network
Permissions
define who can access certain resources and when they can access those resources
Log On
through the user account where the user can access a computer or network
User Name or User ID
a unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet, or numbers, that identifies one specific user
Password
a private combination if characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources
To protect sensitive data and information further as it travels over a network, the operating system may ______ it.
encrypt
Encryption
process of encoding data and information into an unreadable form
Many of the first operating systems were _______ _______ and proprietary.
device dependent
Device Dependent Program
runs only a specific type or make of the computer
Propriety Software
privately owned and limited to a specific vendor or computer model
Device Independent Operating Systems
operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufacturers
The Advantage of Independent Operating Systems
you can retain existing application software and data files even if you change computer models or venders
When you purchase a new computer or mobile device, it typically has an ______ ______ preinstalled.
operating system
Purchasing an operating system upgrade usually costs ______ than purchasing the entire operating system.
less
The Application Software may or may not be ________compatible, meaning it may or may not run on new versions of the operating system
upward
Three Basic Categories of OS
stand alone, server, embedded
Stand Alone OS
a complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device
Some Stand Alone OS are called _______ _______ _________ because they also work in conjunction with a server operating system.
client operating systems
Client Operating Systems can operate ____ or _______ a network.
with; without
Examples of Currently Used Stand Alone OS
windows 7, mac os x, unix, linux
Windows 7
microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date
Gadget/ Widget
mini-program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or provides information, example: calendar
Mac OS X
multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by apple
Macintosh OS
set the standard for operating system ease of use and has been the model for most of the new gui's developed for non macintosh systems
UNIX
multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970's by scientists at Bell Laboratories
Although some versions of UNIX have a command line interface, most versions of UNIX offer a ________ user interface.
graphical
______ users often work with UNIX because of its flexibility and power.
power
Linux
(one of the faster growing operating systems) introduced in 1991, a popular, multitasking unix-type operating system
Linux is not a ________ software.
proprietary
Linux is an ______ _______ software, which means its code is provided for use, modification, and redistribution
open source
Some of these stand-alone operating systems do include networking capability; however, ______ operating systems are designed to specifically support all ______ of networks including medium to large sized businesses and Web Servers.
server; sizes
Windows Server 2008
an upgrade to windows 2003
Windows Server 2008 Family
windows server 2008 standard, windows server 2008 enterprise, windows server 2008 datacenter, windows web server 2008, and windows server 2008 for itanium-based systems
Windows Server 2008 Standard
for the typical small to medium sized business network
Windows Server 2008 Enterprise
for medium to large sized businesses, including those with e-commerce operations
Windows Server 2008 Datacenter
for businesses with huge volumes of transactions and large scale databases
Windows Web Server 2008
for web server and web hosting businesses
Windows Server 208 for Itanium-Based Systems
for computers with 64-bit processors that function as a web server
Virtualization
the practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers
Through Virtualiztion, for example, OS such as Windows Server 2008 can separate a _______ server into ______ ________ servers.
physical; several virtual
More About UNIX
it is a multipurpose operating system because it is both a stand alone and server operating system
Many Web servers use _____ as their OS.
unix
More About Linux
it is also a multipurpose operating system
Solaris
a version of unix developed by sun microsystems, server operating system designed specifically for e-commerce applications
NetWare
by novell, a server operating system designed for client/ server networks
NetWare has a server portion that _______ ____ ___ _______.
resides on a network
Windows Embedded CE
scaled down windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment and computing devices with limited functionality
Examples of Windows Embedded CE
voIP telephones, industrial control devices, digital cameras, digital photo frames, fuel pumps, security robots, handheld navigation devices, portable media players, ticket machines, automated teller machines
Windows Phone 7
a sucessor to windows mobile,includes functionality, programs, and a user interfaces designed for specific types of smart phones
A Competing OS to Windows Phone 7
palm os
Utility Program
(utility) a type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs
Most OS include server ____ _____utility programs,
built in
File Manager
a utility that performs functions related to file management
Folder
a specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents
Shortcut
an icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file
Search Utility
a program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify
OS typically include a _____ _______.
file manager
Index
stores a variety of information about a file, including its name, date created, date modified, author name, and so on
Search Utilities typically use an _____ to assist with locating files quickly.
index
Image Viewer
the utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphics file, such as a photo
Uninstaller
a utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files
Disk Cleanup Utility
searches for and removes unnecessary files
Disk Defragmenter
a utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard drive so that the operating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster
Fragmented
when the contents of a file are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors
Defragmenting
reorganizing it so that the files are stored in contiguous sectors
Fragmenting ____ ______ disk access and the performance of the entire computer.
slows down
Backup Utility
allows users to copy selected files or an entire hard disk to another storage medium such as another hard disk,optical disc, usb flash drive, or tape
Many BackUp programs ______, or shrink the size of the file during the backup process
compress
Restore Utility
reserves the process and returns backed up files to their original form
Backup Utilities work with a ______ ______.
restore utility
Screen saver
a utility that causes a display device's screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specific time
Ghosting
why screen savers were originally developed, in which images could be etched permanently on a monitor's screen
Personal Firewall
a utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions
Personal Firewalls constantly monitor all _______ to and from a computer
transmissions
Hacker
someone who tries to access a computer or network illegally
Virus
a potentially damaging computer program that affects or infects a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission
Virus Author
the programmer of a virus, intentionally writes a virus program
Malware
(malicious software) software that acts without a suer's knowledge and deliberately alters the computer's operations
Worm
copies itself repeatedly, for example, in memory or over a network, using up system resources and possibly shutting down the system
Trojan Horse
hides within or looks like a legitimate program such as a screen saver
Antivirus Program
protects your computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory, on storage media, or in incoming files
Spyware
a program placed on a computer without the user's knowledge that secretly collects information about the user, often related to web browsing habits
Adware
a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, email, or other internet services
Internet Filters
programs that removes or block certain items from begin displayed
Web Filtering Software
a program that restricts access to certain material on the web
AntiSpam Programs
a filtering program that attempts to remove spam before it reaches your inbox
Spam
unsolicited email message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once
Phishing Filters
program that warns or blocks you from a potentially fraudulent or suspicious web site
Phishing
a scam in which a perpetrator attempts to obtain your personal and/or financial information
File Compression Utility
shrinks the size of a file
Lossy Compression
unable to store file back to original state
Lossless Compression
a compressed file can be returned to its exact original state
When you receive or download a compressed file, you must ___________ it.
uncompress
Uncompress=
unzip, to restore to original form
Media Player
program that allows you to view images and animation, listen to audio, and watch video files on your computer
Disc Burning Software
writes text, graphics, audio, and video files on a recordable or rewritable cd, dvd, or blu-ray disc
Personal Computer Maintenance Utility
identifies and fixes operating system problems, detects and repairs disk problems and includes the capability of improving a computers performance.