The process by which stimulation of a sensory receptor produces neural impulses that the brain interprets.
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
signal detection theory
a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus ("signal") amid background stimulation ("noise"). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
light sensitive cells (rods and cones) that convert light to electrochemical impulses
retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond
area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there.
Also called hue, it is not a property of things in the external world. It is a psychological sensation created by the brain from information obtained by the eyes from light waves of visible light.
opponent process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green
images that occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed
arrangement of electromagnetic radiation--including radio waves, visible light from the Sun, gamma rays, X rays, ultraviolet waves, infrared waves, and microwaves--according to their wavelengths
The eardrum. A structure that separates the outer ear from the middle ear and vibrates in response to sound waves.
a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses
A structure that runs the length of the cochlea in the inner ear and holds the auditory receptors, called hair cells.
hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea
hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerve
Gate control theory
theory that spinal cord contains neurological gate that blocks pains signals or allows them to pass. gate is opened by activity of pain going up small nerve fibers & gate is closed by act of large fibers or by info coming from brain
Experimental Results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement
question of how the visual, auditory, and other areas of the brain influence one another to produce a combined perception of a single object
bottom up processing
analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information
top down processing
information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
perceiving objects as unchanging (having consistent lightness, color, shape, and size) even as illumination and retinal images change
a psychological approach that emphasizes that we often perceive the whole rather than the sum of the parts