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Terms in this set (44)
Tiny masses of glandular tissue found on the posterior surface of the thyroid
how many parathyroids are there
what is the role of the parathyroid glands
regulation of calcium and phosphorus
what do the parathyroids stimulate?
release of PTH
What is the release of PTH based on
So if circulating ca+ decreases what happens to the PTH
it increases which causes ca+ to go from bone into the blood stream.
What happens in the kidney when the parathyroid stimulate the release of PTH
it promote renal tubule reabsorption of Ca+ and depresses phosphate reabsorption which results in decreased ca+ excretion. Also enhances renal production of Vitamin D causing increased ca+ absorption in the small intestines
This is the term for when ca+ is released from the bone
What is secreted from the thyroid that inhibits bone resorption (osteolysis) and increases Ca+ storage in the bones
What does calcitonin do in the kidneys
Increases renal excretion of calcium.
When ca+ is up this is down and vice versa
phosophorus and magnesium
If PTH is down it is
if PTH is up it is
If PTH is decreased it is because
there is not enough calcium
Undersecretion of the parathyroid hormone (more common in females)
What hormon increase bone resorption (loss of substance) and maintains appropriate balance between calcium and phosphate
What can result because of the imbalance between calcium and phosphate
hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia
As a result of hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia alkalosis can occur, what does this lead to?
Tetany and then extreme neuromuscular excitement
Why does hypoparathyroidism occur?
Because of accidental removal or damage of the parathyroid glands during thyroidectomy. Atrophy of the PT gland. Severe hypomagnesemia which leads to suppression of the PTH secretion
What effect does calcitonin have on blood calcium levels
PTH increases serum calcium
What effect does PTH have on calcium levels
Decreases serum calcium
Oversecretion of PTH.
What is the most common cause of benign neoplasm or adenoma of the parathyroid gland
What can long term use of Lithium cause
Hyperplasia of the PT gland
What are causes of hyperparathyroidism
Long term use of LIthium, Radioactive Iodine treatment, past radiographic therapy of the neck, family history, secondary to renal dialysis/chronic renal failure
What are the three classifications of hyperparathyroidism?
Primary, secondary, tertiary
This class of hyperparathyroidism is due to hyperplasia of the gland and loss of negative feedback from circulating Ca levels
This class of hyperparathyroidismis a compensatory response to condition that induce or cause hypocalcemia with causes vitamin d deficiency, malaborption, CRF
This class of hyperparathyroidism is due to increased PTH benign neoplasm
How old are people who encounter hyperparathyroidism
30-70 years old
What does previous neck and head raiation predispose patients to
development of parathyroid adenoma
With this condition the patient may have no symptoms but it will be found with labs
What causes an increase in the s/s of hyperparathyroidism?
Level of serum calcium (any elevated Ca is abnormal and should be checked)
What is occuring during the QRS interval?
repolarization (squeezing of vessicles)
what occurs during T wave
Elevated calcium greater than 10
Low phosphorus less than 3
elevated urine calcium
elevated chloride, uric acid and creatinine
What occurs when there is increased uric acid in the body? Mainly in the lower extremities and the most frequent symptoms is pain
elevated PTH (this is the best diagnosis tool.
hot spots on bone scan or ct scan and ostopenia (bone loss)
bone density/DEXA scan
Osteoporosis most likely will result from?
Increased PTH secretion
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