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What separates primary and secondary ossification centers?

Epiphyseal growth plates (made of hyaline cartilage)

In mature bone, where is the cartilage found?

on the ends

What must first be present for endochondral ossification to occur?

must have hyaline cartilage first

What is the first type of bone to be made?

woven bone

Woven bone becomes either

compact bone or spongy bone

Outer lining of bone


Osteoblasts are found

on the periphery of bone in periosteum's inner layer

Osteoclasts are found

within bone mass, enclosed in intercellular material

Intercellular material of bone

ground substance, fibrous matrix and hydroxyapatite

Primary osteon is

smooth, formed initially when bone is laid down

Secondary osteon is

jagged, found when remodeling occurring, after initial bone laid down

Remodeling of bone requires

resorption and deposition

Remodeling of bone is a

normal daily process

Arrest lines

deposition during remodeling, osteoblasts rest and stay in a perfect line. process of bone being laid down

Reversal lines

resorption and deposition; osteoclasts resorb to have osteoblasts deposit. rough and jagged

Primary ossification occurs in

the center of the bone

Secondary ossification occurs

on the ends of bone


alteration in size, teeth appear small. usually single tooth (max laterals, 3rd molars and supernumerary teeth)

True generalized microdontia

rare, whole dentition small

Relative generalized microdontia

teeth appear small due to large bone


alteration in size, teeth appear big. usually single tooth (mand 3rd molars)

True generalized macrodontia

rare, whole dentition big

Relative generalized macrodontia

teeth appear big due to small bone


alteration in shape, attempt of single tooth to form 2 teeth. more common in deciduous and occurs when no teeth missing

Tooth germ

not completely formed tooth


alteration in shape, union of 2 normally separated teeth. occurs if tooth missing


type of fusion that occurs after root formation. fusion of root to bone


alteration in shape, abnormal curve in the root or crown of a tooth


type of dilaceration, abnormal curve in just the root

Dens In Dente / Invaginatus

alteration in shape, invagination of enamel into surface of tooth's crown. a tooth within a tooth

Dens Evaginatus

alteration in shape, proliferation of enamel during development. extra enamel in wrong spot, may be on root. usually on max laterals and canines. "enamel pearl"


alteration in shape, crown/body of tooth is enlarged at expense of roots. large pulp chambers, short roots. "bull like" teeth

Supernumerary roots

alteration in shape, extra root(s)


alteration in number, lack of teeth

True Anodontia / Congenital Total

missing all teeth

True Partial Anodontia or Hypodontia

one or more teeth are congenitally missing. usually 3rd molars

Supernumerary teeth

alteration in number, extra teeth, most often in maxillary. erupt facially on max and lingually on mand


type of supernumerary teeth, most common and found between max centrals


2nd most common type of supernumerary teeth, found distal to max 3rd molars


type of supernumerary teeth, molar between max molars

Predeciduous Dentition

alteration in number, teeth prior to normal deciduous teeth

Natal teeth

prematurely erupted TRUE deciduous teeth at time of birth, do NOT extract, usually mand centrals

Neonatal teeth

hornified epithelial structure w/ no roots, false teeth, erupt w/ in days of birth, DO extract. exhibit poor anatomy

Post permanent Dentition

alteration in number, 2nd set of permanent teeth

3 stages of normal enamel development

1. Formative stage 2. Calcification stage 3. Maturation stage

Formative stage

deposition of organic matrix, initially soft tissue

Calcification stage

matrix becomes mineralized (hydroxyapatite)

Maturation stage

crystals enlarge, thicken and mature

What percentage of enamel is calcified?


Problems could occur during which stages of enamel development?

during any of the 3 stages

Ameloblasts form


Enamel dysplasia or hypoplasia

problem with development of enamel, not enough enamel


type of enamel dysplasia; defective formation of enamel matrix, thin enamel. occurs during formative stage


type of enamel dysplasia; hypomineralization, defective mineralization of formed matrix. occurs during calcification stage


type of enamel dysplasia; enamel crystals remain immature. occurs during maturation stage

Environmental Causes of enamel hypoplasia

1. Nutrional deficiency/exanthematous diseases 2. Congenital syphilis 3. Hypocalcemia 4. Birth injuries 5. Local infection or Trauma 6. Ingestion of Chemicals 7. Idiopathic factors (unknown)

Congenital syphilis results in

Hutchinson teeth - teeth w/ notches or mulberry molar -tiny additional cusps

Inherited amelogenesis imperfecta

loss of enamel on selected teeth or whole mouth, genetic

Dentinal dysplasia

defect in dentin

Tetracycline staining

intrinsic color change to dentin undergoing mineralization. yellow to grayish to purple

Hereditary dentinogenesis imperfecta

bluish brown color or yellow, pulp chamber may be missing, enamel is normal but fractures easily due to dentin malformation

Regional odontodysplasia

etiology unknown, very large pulp chamber, ghost teeth appearance, nonfunctional teeth

Odontoblasts lay down


Premature eruption

natal (true) teeth

Eruption sequestrum

spicule of bone overlying crown of erupting permanent molar

Embedded teeth

lack of eruptive force (max canine)

Impacted teeth

due to physical barrier, tooth coming in wrong direction. impacted permanent teeth may become ankylosed

Ankylosed deciduous teeth

submerged teeth, ankylosed to adjacent tooth's bone, "pink crown"


benign tumors, growth of calcified dental tissue (ectodermal and mesodermal - CT and epithelial)

Complex odontomas

one mass of calcified dental tissue, no definite dental form appearance, more of a mass

Compound odontomas

calcified dental tissues arranged in appearance more like a tooth

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