Sociology Ch 4 - Society

Using Sociology textbook 12th ed by John J. Macionis Chapter 4
Sociocultural Evolution
Lenski's term for the changes that occur as a society gains new technology
Hunting and Gathering
Making use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation for food
The use of hand tools to raise crops
The domestication of animals
Lare-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
The production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
The production of information using computer technology
Social Conflict
The struggle between segments of society over valued resources
People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
People who sell their labor for wages
Social Institutions
The major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs
False Consciousness
Marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of society
Class Conflict
Conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power
Class Consciousness
Marx's term for workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself
The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
Ideal Type
An abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon
Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation
A way of thinking that emphasiszes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task
Rationalization of Society
Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought
Durkheim's term for a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individuals
Mechanical Solidarity
Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are strong among members of preindustrial societies
Organic Solidarity
Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies
Division of Labor
Specialized economic activity