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16 terms

Plate Tectonics: stress, tension, faults

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Earth's Interior
The first column is the compositional layers,distinguished by the ingredients that make each layer.

The second column is the physical layers, distinguished by the solidity and movement of each layer
continental drift
is the theory that continents can drift apart from one another and have done so in the past
sea-floor spreading
is the process by which new oceanic lithosphere is created as older materials are pulled away
plate tectonics
the theory that the Earth's lithosphere is divided into tectonic plates that move around on top of the asthenosphere
convergent boundary
When two tectonic plates push into one another, the boundary where they meet
divergent boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates that are moving away from each other.
subduction zone
The region where oceanic plates sink down into the asthenosphere.
transform boundary
the boundary between two tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally
stress
the amount of force per unit area that is put on a given material
compression
the type of stress that occurs when an object is squeezed as when two techtonic plates collide.
tension
Stress that occurs when forces act to stretch an object.
folding
Occurs when rock layers bend due to the stress in the Earth's crust.
fault
The surface along which rocks break and slide past each other.
normal fault
a fault in which the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall
reverse fault
A fault in which the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall.
strike-slip fault
occurs when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally