(Sha-nahan and Beck) concluded that in terms of English literacy development, the core instructional components that are effective with native English speakers, such as phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension, are effective with students learning English as a second language. Further, many of the same instructional approaches that are effective in delivering instruction with native English speakers, such as instruction that is systematic and explicit, will be effective with second language students components for a balanced literacy approach include Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Word Study, Vocabulary Development, Reading Aloud, Shared Reading, Guided Reading, Reading Strategy Instruction, Literacy Centers, Independent Reading, Shared Writing, Interactive Writing, Mediated Writing directly teach academic words, multiple word meanings, cognates, strategies for figuring out word meaning from context; interactive read aloud; choose words for direct teaching that are central in a semantic field, teach word meaning in relation to other words that are known, use linguistic and situational context to develop word knowledge, teach denotative and connotative meanings, teach multiple meanings, teach idioms, metaphors, etc., identify referents for nouns and pronoun phrases Phonemic Awareness; phonics, word study, vocabulary development, read aloud, shared reading, guided reading, teach reading strategies, literacy centers, independent reading, shared/interactive/mediated writing; emphasize word identification in proportion to individual words; acknowledge L1, immerse and real world experiences with various purposes; enrich environment with print; accept and celebrate progress (w/errors); encourage at home is strategies used to develop CALP - explicit instruction, integrate content and language objectives, support students use of English to discuss content, KWL, charts, vocab, experience, illustrations, webs, visuals, teach cognitive strategies, allow dictionaries, small group discussion, hand-on focused on meaning and are open-ended; used in group work and have a written component to summarize work, information-gap tasks = transfer info, select relevant info, completeness and correctness, reasoning-gap tasks = derive new info from given info, inference, deduction, reasoning, logic, opinion-gap tasks = identify/articulate personal preference, feeling, attitude toward given situation Focus on student's meaning, not grammar, Paraphrase what student said modeling grammar and vocab, Ask questions in simplified language, Establish a pattern in the questions, Ask for elaboration "tell me more about...", Be a good listener (eye contact, non-verbal support, plenty of time), Provide encouragement to continue "Uh-hah. Really? What happened then?"
Provide difficult words, Ask for clarification. "not sure I understand. Say again?"
are those activities that provide some environmental cues, but are more cognitively demanding. Language learners are exposed to more complex tasks that include some context-embedded cues.
Examples of these tasks include:
participating in hands-on science and mathematics activities; making maps, models, charts, and graphs; solving math computational problems; making brief oral presentations; understanding academic presentations through the use of visuals, demonstrations, active participation, realia, etc.; and writing academic reports with the aid of outlines, structures, etc.
the student has limited comprehension, produces one or two-word responses, participates using key words and familiar phrases and uses present-tense verbs. The approximate time frame in this stage is 6 months to 1 year. Teacher uses yes/no questions, either/or questions, one or two word answers, lists and labels. Early Production, students begin using single words or two-word phrases, yes/no responses, names, and repetitive language patterns (e.g., "How are you?").