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Tundra/ Arctic

High elevation, high altitude; Average winter temperature -34° C, average summer temperature 3-12° C ; Most of the water is frozen as well as most of the ground

Taiga/ Boreal Forest

Broad belt of Eurasia and North America, Siberia (2/3), Scandinavia, Alaska, and Canada; Very cold and warms a little (for other seasons)

Temperate Forests

East North America, northeast Asia, and west and central Europe; Survival is good during the warm seasons but during the winter, most of the animals need to hibernate or migrate

Temperate Grasslands

North America prairies, steppes of Eurasia, plains of Africa, pampas of South America; Grass survive fires better because they grow from the bottom and can grow the tops back fast; soil is too thin for trees; Horses, bison, kangaroos, antelope

Temperate Rainforests

West Coast of the United States, Canada, West New Zealand; They are rare; can be called giant forests; tallest tree in the world in this biome and the trees live for a long time

Tropical Rain Forests

Equator (only covers 3 percent of the Earth, but contains 50 percent of plants/ species); Low nutrients in the ground because the huge trees hog them up; life is easily lived because it is so easy to survive (birds "show off")

Tropical Seasonal Savanna and Grasslands

SE Asia, South and Central America; Seasonal, lots of rain in the forest but lower rain on the grasslands; Grasshoppers, lions, cheetahs, giraffes


Africa, SW United States, Mexico, Australia; Less than 50cm per year of rain; usually hot and dry, but some become cold at nightfall


Can be either freshwater (swamps, marshes, bogs) or saltwater (marshes); Small changes in the elevation make such differences- for example, when it rises, the roots can get more of an oxygen supply; Crabs, shellfish, clams, birds, frogs (and other amphibians)


Climate Varies during different seasons (can go anywhere from 4 to 22 degrees Celsius); Zooplankton, fish, birds;Lake, ponds, rivers, and streams; usually less than 1 percent of salt concentration

Marine(oceanic) water/Intertidal

Above the crust/ lithosphere; Atlantic, Pacific, Arctic, Indian;Cold (around 3 degrees Celsius); Coral, seaweed, bacteria; Fish, seahorses, sharks, dolphins, seastars, crabs;This is the largest ecosystem; covers over 70 percent of the Earth's surface

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