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Which of the following are true about sense organs?
A. they are extensions of the central nervous system
B. they monitor the inside and outside of the animal
C. they have specially modified nerve endings called sensory receptors
D. all of the above


what type of stimuli involves touch, hearing & balance


what type of stimuli involves hot & cold


what type of stimuli involves vision


what type of stimuli involves taste & smell

visceral sensations, touch, temperature, pain, proprioception

List the 5 general senses


Which of the following is not true about general senses?
A. they are located throughout the body
B. they monitor overall conditions inside & outside the body
C. they are complex in structure
D. they are rarely involved in clinical disease or treatment


where is the slit like opening of the Eustachian tube located?

round window

this structure acts as a pressure relief mechanism by bulding in & out as fluid moves back and forth in the cochlea

organ of corti

this is the receptor organ of hearing

middle ear

where are the ossicles located?


which type of joint is between the malleus & incus and the incus & stapes

tapetum lucidum

what structure enhances vision in dim light for most domestic animals?

ciliary body

what ring shaped structure adjusts the shape of the lens in the eye?


what is the junction of the cornea & sclera called?


True or False: the innermost layers of retina are transparent to light


what structure is responsible for most refractive work of the eye?


True or False: the conjunctival sac is a potential space moistened by tears that is a good place to deposit ophthalmic medications

third eyelid

what structure has T-shaped cartilage & it's inner surface has lymph nodes & accessory lacrimal glands?

conjunctival cells

what structures produce the inner mucous layer of tears?

visceral sensations

this misc category of interior body sensations includes hunger & thirst, and hollow organ fullness


stretch receptors in the gastrointestinal system sense pain caused by what?


true or false: touch sensations are detected at an almost unconscious level unless they become extreme


true or false: pain receptors are located throughout the body, including the brain


which is true about non-human animals reaction to pain?
a. they do not dwell on pain like humans do
b. hiding pain is a survival instinct
c. the visible reaction to pain will vary among species, breeds and individual animals
d. prevention and control of pain is important to veterinary medicine
e. all of the above are true


which is not true about proprioception?
a. it helps determine ody position & movement, and location of feet & legs
b. it operates at a largely conscious level
c. it allows an animal to stand upright & make purposeful movements
d. it contains a variety of stretch receptors in the skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments & joint capsules
e. it allows the body to produce smooth movements


which is not true about taste buds
a. they are tiny rounded structures made up of gustatory & supporting cells
b. tiny openings on the surface are called taste pores and allow dissolved substances to enter
c. sensory receptors are tiny, hair like processes that extend from gustatory cells to taste pores
d. information is transmitted to the CNS via the olfactory nerve


which is true about the sense of smell
a. it is a mechanical sense similar to taste
b. it is less important and less developed in animals as compared to humans
c. it is operated by two patches of olfactory epithelium located near the nostrils
d. nerve impulses are generated to the spinal cord & interpreted as smells
e. none of the above are true


true or false: the eustachian tube equalizes air pressure on 2 sides of the oval window

tympanic membrane (ear drum)

this is a paper thin, connective tissue membrane, that stretches tightly across the opening between the external auditory canal & the middle ear

protect the ear from damage by deadening the transmission of loud sounds

what is the function of the tensor tympani & strapedius muscles?

external, middle, inner

what are the 3 functional parts of the ear?

funnel to collect sound wave vibrations & direct them to the ear drum

what is the function of the external ear?

amplify & transmit vibrations from the eardrum to the inner ear

what is the function of the middle ear?

sensory receptors convert vibrations to nerve impulses ; also contains equilibrium receptors

what is the function of the inner ear?


this is a mechanical sense that helps the animal maintain its balance by keeping track of the position & movements of the head


true or false: the receptors for equilibrium are the vestibule & semicircular canals


which of these is true about the sense of vision?
a. the eye components exist to help form an accurate visual image, not detect it
b. photoreceptors are responsible for detecting the image & generating visual nerve impulses
c. photoreceptors are located in the retina
d. all of the above are true


which of the following is not located in the middle vascular layer (uvea) of the eye?
a. ciliary body
b. cornea
c. tapetum
d. iris
e. all are located in the uvea


true or false: the cornea has no pain receptors & it is one of the least sensitive tissues in the body


which of the following is true about photoreceptors in the retina?
a. there are two types of receptors: rods & squares
b. rods are more sensitive to color than cones, and produce good detail
c. animals have more rods than cones & do not perceive detail as sharply as humans
d. all of the above are true


which of the following is not true about the conjuctiva?
a. the conjunctiva is thick & opaque, and it covers the eyeballs & lines the eyelids
b. it allows veterinarians to detect abnormalities such as anemia & jaundice
c. the space between the bulbar & palpebral conjunctiva is a useful area to deposit ophthalmic medications

nictitating membrane

what is the medical term for the 3rd eyelid?

close up

which type of vision requires more muscles, close up OR far away?

vision, equilibrium, proprioception

maintaining balance is a complicated process that involves information received from what 3 senses?

it acts as a mirror and reflects light back through the retina a second time

how does the tapetum aid low light vision?


this is the main function of the lens & it helps to focus a clear image in the retina, regardless of whether the image is viewed close up or far away


true or false: windup is an exaggerated pain response & can cause stress on the surgical patient


this is a complete loss of sensation & loss of consciousness


this is when the perception of pain is decreased, but not completely absent

local anesthesia

this is a loss of sensation from a particular area of the body without affecting consciousness


which of the following are true about camelid iridic granules?
a. in bright light these structures will interdigitate to completely cover the center of the pupil
b. this produces a unique pupil shape where the center is closed & two small rounded openings are present at either end of the pupil
c. horses will have similar structures on the upper pupil margin
d. all of the above are true

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