39 terms

Biology vocabulary to know

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Abiotic
Non-living
(無生物)
Asexual reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
(無性生殖)
Autotroph
An organism that makes its own food
(独立栄養生物)
Binomial nomenclature
Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
(二名法)ex: homo+Sapiens
Binomial
A system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the species name
(二名法) ex: homo+Sapiens
Carnivore
A consumer that eats only animals.(肉食動物)
Cell
Basic unit of life
(細胞)
Cell membrane
A cell structure that controls which substances can enter or leave the cell.
(細胞膜)
Cell wall
A rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms.
( 細胞壁)
Chloroplast
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs
(葉緑体)
Cilia
Hairlike projections that extend from the plasma membrane and are used for locomotion
(繊毛)
Classification
The process of grouping things based on their similarities(分類)
Community
A group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
(ある区域内に生息している生物種の全体。)
Cytoplasm
Gel-like fluid where the organelles are found
(細胞質)例:アメーバ
DNA
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
(デオキシリボ核酸)
Ecosystem
A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment.
(生態系)
Eukaryote
Has a nucleus
(真核生物)
Sexual reproduction
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
(両性生殖)
Society
Two or more individuals living together in a community and/or sharing elements of culture.
(社会)
Species
A group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
(種)
Genus
A group of similar species
(属)
Taxonomy
Discipline of classifying organisms and assigning each organism a universally accepted name
(分類体系)
Unicellular
Made of a single cell
(単細胞の)
Vertebrate
animal that has a backbone
(脊椎動物)
psuedopod
false foot which amoebas use to move
(アメーバ状)
Prokaryote
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
(原核生物 ラテン語: Prokaryota プローカリオータ、英語: Prokaryote プロカリオートは、核膜を持たず、したがって明確な輪郭をもった細胞核の見られない細胞からなる生物のこと。 構造的に真核生物よりも遥かに小さく、内部構造も単純である。バクテリア 古細菌など)
organism
A living thing
(微)生物
omnivour
An organism that eats both plants and animals.
雑食動物
nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
(細胞核)
multicellular
Consisting of many cells
(多細胞生物)
Invertebrate
An animal without a backbone (無脊椎動物)
hyphae
Filaments of fungi
(菌糸)
heterotroph
An organism that cannot make its own food.
(従属栄養生物)
herbivour
Eats plants
(草食系)
Fungis
chemicals that inhibit fungal growth
(菌類)
Flagella
A long, whip-like filament that helps in cell motility. Many bacteria are flagellated, and sperm are flagellated.
(鞭毛)
photosynthetic
use the energy from light
cellular respiration
The process by which cells use oxygen to produce energy from food
organic compound
chemical compound that contains carbon atoms

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