Upgrade to remove ads
Honors U.S. History Study Cards - End of the Year Finals. Part 1
Terms in this set (150)
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire
Great Britain, France, Russia, later US
Spark of WWI
Archduke of Austria-Hungry and his wife was assasinated in Bosnia
A British passenger ship that was sunk by a German U-Boat. The sinking greatly turned American opinion against the Germans
A telegram Germany Sent to Mexico to convince Mexico to attack the U.S.
Ideas spread to influence public opinion for or against a cause.
A form of warfare in which opposing armies fight each other from trenches dug in the battlefield. (WWI)
Selective Service Act
Law passed by Congress in 1917 that required all men from ages 21 to 30 to register for the military draft
Protection of merchant ships from U-boat attacks by having ships travel in large groups
airplanes, poisonous gas, tanks, machine guns, zeppelins, flamethrowers, barbed wire, submarines
An agreement to stop fighting
A series of proposals outlined a plan for achieving a lasting peace after WWI
Treaty of Versailles
June 28, 1919
Created by the leaders victorious allies and signed by Germany to help stop WWI.
1) Stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Air force.
2) Germany had to repair war damages(33 billion)
3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI
4) Germany could not manufacture any weapons.
The Big Four
France- Clemenceau (wants revenge )
England- David Lloyd George (wants revenge )
U.S. - Woodrow Wilson ( wants peace w/ no wars )
Italy- Vittorio Orlando ( wants land )
League of Nations
An international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
(Wilson's 14 points)
The right to vote
A suffragette who believed that giving women the right to vote would eliminate the corruption in politics.
A way on non-harmful recognition to show the strikers are serious.
A policy of favoring native-born individuals over foreign-born ones
A period of fear of communists
A name used to describe the group of cabinet members Warren G. Harding brought into office.
Personal Friend and Involved in Scandals
1863-1947. Creator of Assembly Lines
Production method that breaks down a complex job into a series of smaller tasks
Customers could buy goods by making a small down payment followed by additional monthly payments with interest
Growth of cities
Conservative beliefs in the Bible and that it should be literally believed and applied
1925 Tennesse trial where teacher John Scopes was charged with teaching evolution
Darrow = defense
Bryan = prosecutor
A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.
Repeal of Prohibition
Young women of the 1920s that behaved and dressed in a radical fashion
A period in the 1920s when African-American achievements in art and music and literature flourished
Stock market with rising prices
Markets in which securities prices are falling
High demands for consumer goods and agricultural products led to overpopulation
Buying on credit increased personal debt
Buying on margin was a risky market practice--
Bank loans for stock purchases was an unsound practice
The Smoot-Hawley Tariff created trade war worsened world economic conditions
Huge increases in taxes hurt companies and individuals
Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future
October 29, 1929; date of the worst stock-market crash in American history and beginning of the Great Depression.
A drought in the 1930s that turned the Great Planes very dry.
dark skies created when strong winds pick up and carry large amounts of topsoil
a deprived area on the outskirts of a town consisting of large numbers of crude dwellings.
A dam built in the 1930s, with funding from the federal government, to control the Colorado River.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
First 100 Days
Start of Great Depression
Period from FDR's inauguration in March 1933 through the following June. During this time, Roosevelt pushed program after program through Congress in an effort to provide economic relief and recovery.
closed all banks until gov. examiners could investigate their financial condition; only sound/solvent banks were allowed to reopen
A series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the Great Depression.
Agricultural Adjustment Act
1933 to raise crop prices by paying farmers to kill crops
Tennessee Vally Authority
1933 to construct dams and power plants
Social Security Act
Law in 1935
Provide aid to retirees, unemployed, disabilities and families
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation
1933 to insure individuals bank accounts
Gov spending more money that income
Presidential speeches broadcasted over the radio to people at home
Germany Italy Japan
Opposition to political and economic relations with other countries
Lend Lease Act
Allowed US to ship arms and other supplies w/o immediate payment
Accepting demands in order to avoid conflict
Systematic murder or genocide of Jews and other groups by the Nazis before and during WWII
7:50-10:00 AM, December 7, 1941 - Surprise attack by the Japanese on the main U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii destroyed 18 U.S. ships and 200 aircraft. American losses were 3000, Japanese losses less than 100. In response, the U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II.
Japanese internment camps
The forcible relocation of approximately 110,000 Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor.
Double V Campaign
The World War II-era effort of black Americans to gain "a Victory over racism at home as well as Victory abroad."
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Zoot Suit Riots
A series of riots in L.A. California during WW2, soldiers stationed in the city and Mexican youths because of the zoot suits they wore.
A limited portion or allowance of food or goods; limitation of use
Rosie the Riveter
A propaganda character designed to increase production of female workers in the factories. It became a rallying symbol for women to do their part.
Bataan Death March
Japanese forced about 60,000 of americans and philippines to march 100 miles with little food and water, most died or were killed on the way
(1880-1964), U.S. general. Commander of U.S. (later Allied) forces in the southwestern Pacific during World War II, he accepted Japan's surrender in 1945 and administered the ensuing Allied occupation. He was in charge of UN forces in Korea 1950-51, before being forced to relinquish command by President Truman.
(FDR) , June 6, 1944, 160,000 Allied troops landed along a 50-mile stretch of heavily-fortified French coastline to fight Nazi Germany on the beaches of Normandy, France. General Dwight D. Eisenhower called the operation a crusade in which "we will accept nothing less than full victory." More than 5,000 Ships and 13,000 aircraft supported the D-Day invasion, and by day's end on June 6, the Allies gained a foot- hold in Normandy.
Battle of Midway
1942 World War II battle between the United States and Japan, a turning point in the war in the Pacific
Battle of the Buldge
Last German offensive. Allies Won
Japanese suicide pilots
A military strategy used during World War II that involved selectively attacking specific enemy-held islands and bypassing others
a bloody and prolonged operation on the island of Iwo Jima in which American marines landed and defeated Japanese defenders (February and March 1945)
The U.S. Army in the Pacific had been pursuing an "island-hopping" campaign, moving north from Australia towards Japan. On April 1, 1945, they invaded Okinawa, only 300 miles south of the Japanese home islands. By the time the fighting ended on June 2, 1945, the U.S. had lost 50,000 men and the Japanese 100,000.
Code name for the U.S. effort during World War II to produce the atomic bomb. Much of the early research was done in New York City by refugee physicists in the United States.
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II.
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Victory in Europe Day (May 8)
Occupation of Japan
Occupied by US forces under the command of General MacArthur, Japan was forced to allow American troops to take control of the government after Japan surrendered to the United States.
Partition of Germany
Divided among Allies - England, France, US, USSR
- USSR section becomes East Germany, others unite - W. Germany
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
Formed in Oct. 24 1945
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted each other on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
1947, the President's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
The Soviet Union and the Eastern European countries that installed Communist regimes after World War II and were dominated by the Soviet Union.
Communist nations in Eastern Europe on friendly terms with the USSR and thought of as under the USSR's control
Policy introduced by Harry S. Truman after WWII that said the duty of the U.S. was to stop the spread of Totalitarianism (implying Communism); Defined the foreign policy for the period after WWII until the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
Joint effort by the US and Britian to fly food and supplies into West Berlin after the Soviet blocked off all ground routes into the city
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea. (1950-1953)
Second Red Scare
Caused by rise of "Red China" and the Shocks of 1949;
The fear in 1947 that Soviet spies were in the government.
A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.
American spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially.
A policy of reducing Cold War tensions that was adopted by the United States during the presidency of Richard Nixon.
Cuban Missile Crisis
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba
Bay of Pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
Law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations like college.
An increase in population by almost 30 million people. This spurred a growth in suburbs and three to four children families.
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
Interstate Highway Act
1956 Eisenhower 20 yr plan to build 41,000 mi of highway, largest public works project in history
a movement advocating greater protection of the interests of consumers
the practice of modifying products so those that have already been sold become obsolete before they actually need replacement
Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.
Rock and Roll
music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s
1960 TV Debate
This made Kennedy look much better than Nixon, causing people to see him as the winner if they were a view as opposed to listeners who believed Nixon won.
John F. Kennedy
35th President of the United States and the only president to have won a Pulitzer Prize (1961-1963)
(JFK) , volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty, Africa, Asia, and Latin America
Race to the Moon
A race between the Soviets and the US in the advance of science and space exploration
Assassination of JFK
On November 22, 1963
This President was shot twice during the 'Motorcade' in Dallas, Texas. Shot once in the neck and once on the side of the head. Before the motorcade ______ refused to have a closed roof car/convertible.
Commission made by LBJ after killing of John F. Kennedy. (Point is to investigate if someone paid for the assassination of Kennedy.) Conclusion is that Oswald killed Kennedy on his own.
Lee Harvey Oswald
On November 22, 1963, he assassinated President Kennedy who was riding downtown Dallas, Texas. _______ was later shot in front of television cameras by Jack Ruby.
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; Democrat; signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Jim Crow Segregation
(1900 through the 1960s)
This social setback barred African Americans from public and social interaction with whites.
1947, ________'s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology, mainly helped Greece and Turkey
Allied commander in WW2 in Europe; helped plan the D-Day invasion at Normandy; 34th President
Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him and his death led to the American Civil Rights movement. (Only recognized by his father's ring)
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) which triggered the national civil rights movement
Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities were 'Separate by equal'
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled the Separate but equal case and declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. _______ was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city buses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Civil Rights Leader. Developed a non-violent approach to social change after studying others. Founded the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. Gave the "I have a Dream Speech" at the March of Washington
March on Washington
In August 1963, civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
Little Rock Nine
A group of AA school kids that went to an all white school in Alabama and were bullied for being 'colored'
to protest at lunch counters that served only whites
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Birmingham Children's March
Thousands of _______ walking through the streets of Alabama harmlessly while being hosed down by the police and the fire station. The reason was to fill up the jails and show they won't stop. The effect was positive causing JFK to end the segregation of the United States.
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
Voting Rights Act of 1965
This invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
1927-1993. Farm worker, labor leader, and civil-rights activist who helped form the National Farm Workers Association, later the United Farm Workers.
National Organization of Women, 1966, Betty Friedan first president, wanted Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforce its legal mandate to end sex discrimination
Equal Rights Amendment
Wanted the same rights for anyone no matter the gender or race.
Ho Chi Minh
Communist leader of North Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh Trail
A network of paths used by North Vietnam to transport supplies to the Vietcong in South Vietnam. Went from Laos to Cambodia.
If one country happens to fall to communism, the surrounding countries would then become communists as well.
Southern Vietnamese civilians that supported the north and used booby traps and Punji spikes to fight the Allied forces.
Highly flammable chemical dropped from US planes in firebombing attacks during the Vietnam War.
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
Hawks and Doves
_____ are people who supported the war's goal and _____ were people who opposed the war.
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
Living Room War
For the first time, Americans could sit in their living rooms and see the devastating effects of the war (body bags) on their televisions
Assimilation into American culture
A war policy in Vietnam initiated by Nixon in June of 1969. This strategy called for dramatic reduction of U.S. troops followed by an increased injection of S. Vietnamese troops in their place. A considerable success, this plan allowed for a drop in troops to 24,000 by 1972. . This policy became the cornerstone of the so-called "Nixon Doctrine"
A law requiring people of a certain age to serve in the military
Love, Peace, and Freedom
A culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APUSH AP Exam Terms: 1941-1960
AP History Chapters 26-30 Review
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
AP US GOPO Unit 2/3
Chemistry: Matter and Change Semester 1
Spanish Study Cards