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A&P II Ch 4
Terms in this set (67)
True (All epithelia exhibit polarity, which is defined by the presence of an apical, or free, surface and a basal, or attached, surface that differ in both structure and function.)
All epithelia have two surfaces, an apical surface and a basal surface, that differ in both structure and function. This property is called polarity.
The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium
(The cutaneous membrane, a "dry" membrane exposed to air, consists of a keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium called the epidermis, and an underlying layer of connective tissue called the dermis.)
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?
-The cutaneous membrane is made of a simple columnar epithelium
-The cutaneous membrane is a dry membrane exposed to air.
-Serous membranes line body cavities and organs.
-Mucous membranes line exits and entrances to the body.
provide flexibility (Elastic fibers contain elastin, a rubberlike protein that allows them to stretch and recoil like rubber bands, making them very flexible.)
In connective tissue, the role of elastic fibers is to __________.
-form delicate networks around blood vessels
-provide tensile strength
They have a common origin: mesenchyme (Adipose tissue, bone, and blood (like all connective tissues) are derived from mesenchyme, an embryonic tissue. Also common to all connective tissues is the presence of cells and an extracellular matrix that consists of fibers bathed in ground substance.)
Why are adipose tissue, blood, and bone all considered to be connective tissues?
-They have a common origin: mesenchyme.
-They have the same types of cells.
-They all have collagen and elastic fibers in their extracellular matrix.
-They connect to each other.
blood (Blood, the fluid connective tissue (CT) within blood vessels, is the most atypical CT. It does not act as a binding or packing material; it does not provide structural support. It is classified as a CT only because it develops from mesenchyme and consists of cells (blood cells) surrounded by an extracellular fluid matrix (blood plasma).)
Which is the most atypical connective tissue since it does NOT act as a binding or packaging material under normal conditions or provide structural support?
epithelial tissue (is a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity (epithe = laid on, covering). In addition to coverings and linings, epithelial cells can also form glands, called glandular epithelium.)
Which tissue type consists of a sheet of cells that covers a body surface or lines a body cavity?
mucins (Like mucous cells, goblet cells are unicellular exocrine glands that secrete mucin, a protein that combines with water to form mucus. In goblet cells, the cuplike accumulation of mucin distends the top of the cell, making these cells look like a glass with a stem, thus "goblet" cell. This distortion does not occur in mucous cells)
__________ are water-soluble, complex glycoproteins that are secreted by goblet cells.
Dense connective tissue includes a great deal of collagen. (is filled with very strong collagen fibers)
Which of the following statements is true?
-Bundles of collagen are often found in loose connective tissue.
-Dense connective tissue includes a large amount of reticular fibers.
-Loose connective tissue includes cartilage.
-Dense connective tissue includes a great deal of collagen.
Endocrine glands are often called ducted glands.
fibers and ground substance
Connective tissue extracellular matrix is composed of ________.
-ground substance and cells
-all organic compounds
-cells and fibers
-fibers and ground substance
stratified squamous epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium
simple squamous epithelium
both are exocrine glands (both glands secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities)
What do the glands shown in A and B both have in common?
-Both are endocrine glands.
-Both are unicellular.
-Both are sebaceous glands.
-Both are exocrine glands.
Epithelial tissues always exhibit apical-basal polarity; meaning that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface.
endocrine glands have no ducts (secrete substances, hormones, into blood without the use of ducts, whereas exocrine glands use ducts to secrete substances into the external environment
How are endocrine and exocrine glands different from each other?
-Endocrine glands have no ducts.
-Exocrine glands have specific target organs for their secretions.
-Exocrine glands are only unicellular in structure.
-Exocrine glands secrete hormones.
Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing (Sebaceous, oil, glands are the only example of holocrine glands in the body)
Which of the following describes a holocrine gland?
-Holocrine glands secrete their products by pinching off the apex of the cell.
-Holocrine glands secrete their products through a hollow, tubular duct.
-Holocrine glands secrete their products by rupturing.
-Holocrine glands secrete their products by exocytosis.
Merocrine glands produce their secretions by accumulating their secretions internally until the cell ruptures.
Glands, such as the thyroid, that secrete their products directly into the blood rather than through ducts are classified as ________.
Stratified squamous epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important
Select the correct statement regarding epithelia.
-Simple epithelia form impermeable barriers to viruses.
-Stratified squamous epithelia are present where protection from abrasion is important.
-Pseudostratified epithelia consist of at least two layers of cells stacked on top of one another.
-Simple squamous epithelia consist of tall, narrow cells.
cell division (Cells are regenerated by division in the basal layer and migrate toward the apical surface to replace cells lost by fragmentation. Cell division is indicated by the mitotic phase cells located in the deepest, basal, layer of the glandular epithelium)
What process is depicted in the basal layer of the glandular epithelium shown in B?
Functions of connective tissues include binding, support, insulation, and protection.
Blood is considered a type of connective tissue.
Cartilage has good regenerative capacity, while most epithelial tissues do not.
absorption (the movement of substances into the body, is a role of epithelial tissue. Roles of connective tissue include binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation of substances, via blood, within the body)
Which of the following is NOT a role of connective tissue?
areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area
Edema (swelling) occurs when ________.
-adipose cells enlarge by pinocytosis
-reticular connective tissue invades the area
-areolar tissue soaks up excess fluid in an inflamed area
-collagen fibers enlarge as they change from dehydrated to hydrated shape
bone (osseous tissue)
What tissue has lacunae, calcium salts, and blood vessels?
-bone (osseous tissue)
Tendons and ligaments are composed mainly of dense irregular connective tissue.
simple squamous epithelium (ideal for the diffusion of gases in the lungs)
The wall of the alveolus (air sac) in the lung is composed of which type of epithelium?
-simple squamous epithelium
-simple columnar epithelium
simple cuboidal epithelium (line the kidney tubules, nephrons, so that secretion and absorption can take place)
The proximal tubule of the nephron (kidney tubule) in the kidney is composed of which type of epithelium?
-simple cuboidal epithelium
-ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
-stratified squamous epithelium
stratified squamous epithelium (protects underlying tissues from the wear and tear of constant swallowing in the esophagus)
The epithelium of the esophagus is composed of which type of epithelial tissue?
-simple columnar epithelium
-stratified squamous epithelium
-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
soma (receives inputs, signals, from other cells and sends the information to the axon. But unlike a dendrite, it also is the main metabolic and nutritional center of the cell)
Which part of the neuron (a specialized nerve cell) receives signals from other cells and is also the main metabolic region of the neuron?
skeletal (are elongated and many can be quite long; therefore, they have multiple nuclei)
Which of the three muscle cell types has multiple nuclei?
Which muscle cell type has visible striations but is not under voluntary control?
Has a surface to which nothing is attached
Moves food through the GI tract
Moves blood through the body
Derived fro mesenchyme
the method of secretion (The gland in A is secreting in a merocrine manner, while B is secreting in a holocrine manner)
What distinguishes the gland in A from the gland in B?
-the method of secretion
-the direct secretion of products into the blood
-the use of epithelial cells to produce products
-the use of a duct
epithelial tissue is innervated (Epithelial tissue is an innervated, avascular tissue that exhibits polarity; Epithelial tissue is also highly regenerative)
Which of the following is a property of epithelial tissue?
-Epithelial tissue is innervated.
-Epithelial tissue does not exhibit polarity.
-Epithelial tissue contains blood vessels.
-Epithelial tissue is typically unable to regenerate
stretching (Transitional epithelium is found in the urinary system; It lines the ureters, bladder, and proximal part of the urethra--organs that are subjected to distention or stretching as urine passes through or fills them)
What function do transitional epithelia have?
-resistance to friction
Which of the following epithelia forms the walls of the air sacs across which gas exchange occurs in the lungs?
A substance received or given off by your body will likely pass through which tissue type?
________ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane.
A many-layered epithelium with cuboidal basal cells and flat cells at its surface would be classified as ________.
epithelium (have polarity, which is to say that there is directionality; There is always an exposed surface and an attached surface; Epithelia are also avascular)
What tissue type has polarity and is avascular?
Squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature.
extracellular matrix (includes ground substance and all fibers)
Which of these terms applies best to all material in this tissue that is not cellular?
Which of the following is NOT found in cartilage but is found in bone?
The reason that intervertebral discs exhibit a large amount of tensile strength, which allows them to absorb shock, is because they possess ________.
usually contains a large amount of matrix
Which statement best describes connective tissue?
-typically arranged in a single layer of cells
-usually contains a large amount of matrix
-primarily concerned with secretion
-usually lines a body cavity
The fiber type that gives connective tissue great tensile strength is ________.
ground substance, fibers, and cells
What are the three main components of connective tissue?
-collagen, elastin, and reticular fibers
-fibroblasts, chondroblasts, and osteoblasts
-ground substance, fibers, and cells
-alveoli, fibrous capsule, and secretory cells
Which tissue type would likely function to hold the kidneys in place?
connective tissues high in collagen fibers (collagen is the toughest of fibers; high amounts of it would indicate strength in connective tissue)
Connective tissues are made of different combinations of ground substance and fibers. As you compare slides of connective tissues, which would most likely be the strongest type of connective tissue based on the composition of ground substance and fibers?
-connective tissue high in ground substance
-connective tissue high in elastic fibers
-connective tissue high in reticular fibers
-connective tissues high in collagen fibers
Elastic connective tissue is found in the walls of the large arteries that leave the heart.
The basic difference between dense irregular and dense regular connective tissues is in the amount of elastic fibers and adipose cells present.
False (Smooth muscle cells do not contain striations; Although they do contain myofilaments, their arrangement is not regular enough to generate the striations seen in skeletal or cardiac muscle cells)
All muscle cells contain striations.
is under involuntary control (smooth and cardiac muscle are under involuntary control; skeletal muscle is voluntary)
Smooth muscle __________.
-is under involuntary control
-contains intercalated discs
-has long, cylindrical cells
Heart muscle cells would tend to separate without ________
highly cellular and well vascularized
Which is true concerning muscle tissue?
-highly cellular and well vascularized
-contains contractile units made of collagen
-is a single-celled tissue
-cuboidal shape enhances function
Which tissue in the wall of the uterus is required for labor contractions?
skeletal muscle tissue (The striations are evidence of the myofilaments inside the muscle fibers; The position of the nuclei and vascularity are also signs of muscle tissue)
Under a microscope you observe a tissue that appears to have long fibers that appear striated. The nuclei are pushed off to the side of the fibers. The tissue looks very vascular. What type of tissue are you observing?
-dense irregular connective tissue
-dense regular connective tissue
-skeletal muscle tissue
Nervous tissue consists mainly of neurons and collagen fibers.
cutaneous membrane (The cutaneous membrane is your skin, an organ consisting of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, epidermis, firmly attached to a thick layer of connective tissue, dermis; Unlike other epithelial membranes, the cutaneous membrane is exposed to the air and is a dry membrane)
Which of the following is a dry membrane exposed to the air?
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