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Behavior modification - Chapter 9
Terms in this set (29)
1. What is a stimulus? Give 2 examples not from the text.
people, objects, and events currently present in one's immediate surroundings that impinge on one's sense receptors and that can affect behaviour.
Ex. Chair, tree, my mom
2. What is an ABC assessment?
Identifying the antecedents and consequences of a behaviour
(antecedents, behaviour, consequences)
3. Define stimulus control.
the degree of correlation between the occurrence of a particular antecedent stimulus and the occurrence of a subsequent response.
4. What is good stimulus control? Give an example that isn't in this chapter
A strong correlation between occurance of a particular stimulus and a particular response.
Example: Every time John, a child who loves icecream hears music from the ice cream truck, he asks his parents for ice cream.
5. Define S^D and give an example that isn't in this chapter. Identify both the S^D and the response in the example.
Discriminative stimulus, A stimulus in the presence of which a response will be reinforced.
Example: If someone sees a says "Fill out a survey, get a cookie" (S^D), they are likely to fill out the survey (behavior) to get a cookie.
6. Define S^triangle, and give an example that isn't in this chapter. Identify both the S^triangle and the response in the example.
A cue that a particular response won't be reinforced, it won't pay off.
Example: Janice wants a cupcake, but reads a sign that says "Cupcakes Sold out" (S^triangle), she will not wait in the bakery line, but leave (response).
7. What is the difference between a stimulus and a discriminate stimulus?
A stimulus is any person, object or event in one's surroundings that impinge on one's sense receptors and affect their in any way behavior, whereas a discriminate stimulus is a stimulus that will evoke a behavior that will be positively reinforced.
8. Give an example (not from this chapter) of a stimulus that is an S^D for one behavior and an S^triangle for a different behavior.
Seeing a "wet floor" sign is a S^D for walking slowly, and an S^triangle for running.
9. Describe the stimulus discrimination training procedure and give an example that isn't in this chapter
The procedure of reinforcing a response in the presence of an S^D, and extinguishing that response in the presence of an S^triangle.
Example: A child learning language may speak Spanish when he sees a Hispanic person, but not speak in English when he sees a non-hispanic person.
10. State the 2 effects of stimulus discrimination training.
1) Good stimulus control - a strong correlation between the occurrence of a particular stimulus and a particular response;
2) Stimulus discrimination - a response occurs to an SD, not to an Sdelta
11. Define stimulus generalization, and give an example not in this text.
Responding to the same way to different stimuli, such as a child identifying 2 dogs of different size and breed as "doggie"
12. In a sentence state the difference between an instance of stimulus discrimination and an instance of stimulus generalization.
In stimulus discrimination there is different responses to different stimuli, but in stimulus generalization there is the same response to different stimuli.
13. What do we mean by common-element stimulus class? By conceptual behaviour? Give an example of each not in this chapter.
CES: a set of stimuli, all of which have one or more physical characteristics in common.
Ex. A bike - have 2 wheels, handle bars, a front brake and a rear brake, gears.
CB: when an organism makes the same response to a group of discriminably different objects.
Ex. A child who responds to dog to different examples of dogs.
14. Describe how you might teach the concept of honesty to a child. Would your program teach a child to be honest? Why or why not.
Break the concept down into specific behaviors, for example, saying the truth, not withholding something from someone, giving somebody their dollar bill back if they dropped in on the ground
15. What do we mean by stimulus equivalence class? Give an example not in this chapter.
A set of completely dissimilar stimuli that an individual has learned to group or match together or respond to in the same way.
Example: Cat: chat, Garfield, a picture of a cat
16. What is primary distinction between the stimulus generalization involving common-element stimulus classes and stimulus generalization involving stimulus equivalence classes?
Stimulus Generalization with Stimulus Common-Element Class:
- Involves a set of stimuli that have some physical characteristic IN COMMON
- Ex: house with green shutters and girl with green socks
Stimulus Generalization with Equivalence Class:
- occurs when we have learned that the stimuli are members of an equivalence class
- A set of COMPLETELY DISSIMILAR stimuli that an individual has been trained to match together
- Ex: the words "mutt", "pooch", and a picture of a dog
- Functionally equivalent in sense that they control the same response
17. When you are considering the selection of a stimulus to be set up as an S^D, what four questions might you ask yourself about that stimulus?
a) Is the stimulus different from other stimuli along more than one dimension (location, size, colour, and sensory modality)?
b) Is the stimulus one that can b presented only or atleast mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur to avoid confusion with the occurrence of the stimulus on other occasions?
c) Is the stimulus of the type tha the probabily of the person attending to it when its presented is high?
d) Are there any undesirable responses that might be controlled by the chosen stimulus?
18. Describe a stimulus that you would like to establish as an S^D for a behavior of yourself or a friend and describe that behavior, then for that stimulus answer the four questions you asked yourself in Q17.
I would like to tie a pink ribbon around my toothbrush as an S^D to remind me to put on my retainer after brushing my teeth. This stimulus is different from other stimuli on more than one dimension (colour, lolcation, size_, it is presented mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur, the probablility of the person attending to it is high when presented and there are no undesirable responses controlled by it.
19. What do we mean by an error in stimulus discrimination training?
A response to an S^triangle, or a failure to respond to an S^D.
20. What is contingency? Give an example not in the text.
an arrangement for reinforcement or punishment to occur when a specific response occurs on a given schedule in a given situation.
Ex. If you push a button on a drink machine, a drink comes out
21. What is a three-term contingency of reinforcement? Give an example not in this chapter
Describes the antecedent of behavior, the behavior and the consequences of the behavior (antecedent-behaviour-consequence). Behaviour must occur following antecedent for reinforcement to occur.
Example: When the bell rings after school (antecedent), students can leave the classroom (behavior), and chat with their friends (reinforcement)
22. From a behavioural perspective, what is a rule?
describes a situation in which a behaviour will lead to a consequence.
23. Distinguish between rule-governed and contingency-shaped behaviour. Give examples not in the text.
RGB: behaviour that is controlled by the statement of a rule.
Ex. Parent tells child that you are aloud to go out on a saturday night if you vacuum your room every friday.
CSB: behaviour that develops because of its immediate consequences through trial and error
Ex. Mike's farting in front of his friends vs parents.
24. Was the children's high on task behavior to the posted rule in the Auckland classroom likely rule governed or contingency shaped? Justify your choice
It was rule-governed, because consistency shaped behavior develops because of its immediate consequences through trail and error, but the Auckland classroom didn't take a few trails to show evidence of stimulus control, it did so after the first trial.
25. Give an example of how ignorance of stimulus discrimination training may lead parents or other caregivers to develop an undesirable behaviour in a child or adult in their care.
A child banging his head on hard surfaces unless an adult held his hand. When the adult let go of his hand and moved away, the child started to bang his head again. The head banging only occurred when standing on a hard surface because an adult would quickly provide attention, which reinforced the behaviour.
1 (B). Using examples, explain what's meant by reflexivity, symmetry and transitivity?
Reflexivity: Recognizing instances of a stimulus example: Match 3 to III
Symmetry: Being able to recognize the equality of two different stimuli example: If A=B then B=A
Transitivity: As a result of learning A=B and B=C the child can match C to A without specific training.
2 (B) How have studies of stimulus equivalence provided support for a behaivoural view of language development?
Infants are able to emit vocal behaviours that haven't been directly reinforced. Through stimulus equivalence training children learn that physically different sounds that are members of the same stimulus equivalence class mean the same thing as other sounds.
3 (B) What is meant by the term contextual control? Illustrate with an example
When the general setting may alter the manner in which an individual responds to a particular stimuli.
Example: Burping in public in North America is considered rude, so you would not do it but in other countries it is considered polite.
4 (B) Just before starting to cross a street, a pedestrian from England visiting Canada observed the street was clear to the right and steeped onto the street and was stuck by a car. Explain how lack of contextual control was involved in this situation?
Because in the UK the highway dividing line is an S^D to steer to the left of it, in Canada you steer to the right, so the man's ignorance of this due to the setting (lack of contextual control) caused him to be hit.
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