Evolutionary Psych Final Exam (Psych 223-Cleaveland)
Terms in this set (124)
the process whereby traits confer the highest relative reproductive success on their bearer and that are heritable increase in frequency over time. Three prerequisites: variation, fitness consequences of a trait, inheritable, and resources must be limited.
the fear of strangers due to a genetic closeness with those in your own population. Ex: naked mole rats.
measured by the number of viable offspring produced, plus any effects that individual 1 might have on the direct descendants of its own offspring.
effects are measured by the increased reproductive success of individual 1's genetic relatives that are due to individual 1's behavior.
the process whereby humans deliberately choose certain varieties of an organism over others by implementing breeding programs that favor one variety over the other.
the observable properties of an organism which is a result of the genotype and the way the genotype manifested itself over time.
when pairs of chromosomes line up during cell division, sections of one chromosome may "cross over" and swap positions with sections of other chromosomes.
parents pass on genes to their offspring, so when narrow-sense heritability is high, the behavioral variation in the offspring should map onto the behavioral variation observed in parents.
an experiment undertaken to measure the relative contributions of genetic and environmental variation on the expression of behavioral traits. This experiment often involves removing young individuals from their parent(s) and having them raised by adults that are not their genetic relatives.
an extreme form of sociality that is present in many social insect groups. There must be a reproductive division of labor in which individuals in certain castes reproduce and others do not, overlapping generations, and communal care of young.
Two great laws from origin of species
Conditions of existence, common ancestry.
depict the evolutionary history of a group of species. Have a nose (point where tree splits and represents common ancestors to the species) and a root (common lineage from which all species indicated on the tree are derived).
a trait that is shared by two or more species because those species shared a common ancestor.
a trait that is not due to descent from a common ancestor shared by two or more species but instead is the result of natural selection acting independently on each species.
traits that are similar as a result of similar selection pressures rather than common descent.
the process whereby different populations or species converge on the same phenotypic characteristics as a result of similar natural selection pressures.
a technique for choosing among alternative phylogenetic trees by selecting the tree that requires the fewest character changes.
a communication network that influences many aspects of animal behavior composed of ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream or into fluid surrounding tissue.
exception of ductless glands and can be released into the bloodstream via neurons that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
hormone in bees that causes the shift between cleaning and thermoregulation to foraging.
a neurohormone in bees linked to foraging, learning, and memory.
the ability of the brain and the nervous system more generally to alter its structure and physiology to mediate both stability and changes in behavior.
if an animal becomes more sensitive to a stimulus over time.
if an animal becomes less sensitive to a stimulus over time.
stimulus that initially fails to elicit a particular response, but comes to do so when it becomes associated with a second unconditioned stimulus.
any stimulus that is considered positive, pleasant, or rewarding.
any stimulus that is unpleasant.
Second Order Conditioning
once a coordinated response has been learned by pairing an US with CS1, a new stimulus is presented before CS1 and if that new stimulus itself eventually elicits the conditioned response, then the new stimulus has become the conditioned response.
when an association between an unconditioned stimulus and a response prevents an individual from responding to another stimulus or causes the individual to respond less strongly to the US2.
the response that is made by an animal is reinforced by the representation of a reward or the termination of an aversive stimulus, or when the response is suppressed by the presentation of aversive stimulus or the termination of a reward.
Law of Effect
states that if the presence of a stimulus followed by a positive event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened.
an action that changes the animal's environment.
Ecological Learning Model
Individuals that learn appropriate cues that are useful in their particular environment should be favored by natural selection (association in rats)
hormones related to stress and anxiety in fighting
the transfer of information from individual to individual through social learning or teaching, both within and between generations of animals
Motor Training Hypothesis
suggests that stone play may facilitate the development of perceptual and cognitive skills
Local Enhancement/Social Facilitation Jist
the observer is drawn to an area by a model or by the action of the model, but the observer does not learn a particular behavior or response
individuals learn from others by being drawn to particular areas because another individual was in that location
the mere presence of a model, regardless of what is done, is though to facilitate learning on the part of the observer
the acquisition of topographically novel response through observation of a demonstrator making that response. There must be some kind of new behavior learned from others.
the observer can see the outside of the individual moving, but cannot see the individual muscle contracting. Controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus, and the dorsal and ventral premotor cortex
an observer repeats what the model does, but can already know what to do.
a new preference that emerges and becomes common within a group. Ex: meerkat
one individual serves as an instructor or teacher and the other is the student. Must not be immediate benefit to teacher and must give information faster than student would learn by itself.
teachers actively place students in situations conducive to learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge
involves a teacher who directly alters the behavior of students by encouragement or punishment
occurs when information is passed on from parent to offspring. Bottlenose dolphins with beaching
refers to transfer of information from an older generation to a younger generation (across generations), but not from parent to offspring
occurs when information is passed throughout one generation
members of one sex compete with each other for access to the other sex
individuals of one sex choose which individuals of the other sex to take as mates
the idea that, since eggs require greater energy to produce than sperm, females should be the choosier sex and this should result in greater variance in the reproductive success of males
Direct Benefits Model
sexual selection favors females that have a genetic predisposition to choose mates that provide them with tangible resources
proportion of total variability due to the genetic variance. height, total finger number, intelligence. Across a single generation (twin studies). Does not tell us about fitness, but about impact on heritability-variation
heritability across generations from one to the next due to a selection event
lifetime reproductive success--usually measured in relative terms
S-R navigation with regards to a clear, singular stimulus. Inflexible, because completely dependent on a single stimulus
place cell navigation, in which the place cell is a composite stimulus that is not dependent on a single stimulus
navigation based on updating position relative to a home base via a computation of body movements
Good Genes Model
a model of sexual selection in which females choose to mate with males that possess traits that are indicators of good health and vigor. Females that choose the males with such genes receive indirect traits that their offspring receive in some of the good genes that led their mother to choose a male as a mate in the first place.
a set of genes connected to immune responses. Correlates with a certain smell. Females not on birth control prefer those with a dissimilar MHC smell, but those on birth control prefer those similar because their body is in a state of "pregnancy" and therefore want those related around her who can help her to take care of the "child"
Runaway Sexual Selection
one locus houses alleles associated with the male trait that females prefer. Over evolutionary time, alleles from the two genes become associated with each other--when one allele is present, it is likely that the other is as well. Ex: long eye-stalks in flies. Over time, those males with longer eye stalks were chosen by females, causing this trait to be passed on. As this happened more females preferred this trait and thus it "ran away" until evolution stopped the eye stalks from becoming a hindrance.
Sensory Bias Mode
hypothesizes that as a male trait first emerges, it may be preferred by females because it elicits a neurobiological response that is already in place in the female and the response has nothing to do with the mating preferences.
a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that appears to play an important role in social behaviors, including mate choice, parental bonds, and individual recognition. In different types of voles, those that are monogamous and thus higher parental care, show higher levels of oxytocin than polygamous species. During a trust game where player 2 was told that player 1 voluntarily sent money to them, player 2's oxytocin levels rose. The more money that player 2 sent back to player 1, the higher the oxytocin levels were.
relatedness centers on the probability that individuals share copies of alleles that they have inherited from common ancestors
Reproductive Skew Theory
examines how reproductive opportunities are divided among potential breeders by predicting conditions that should favor conflict or cooperation with respect to breeding conditions
organisms that possess one copy of a chromosome from one parent, but two from the other parent. Example: honeybees--full sisters inherit exactly the same alleles from their father, while in diploid species, females have only a 50% chance that an allele inherited from their father is identical to an allele that their sister inherited from their father
sterile worker bees use information associated with genetic relatedness to police their hive and destroy eggs that are less related to them, resulting in an increase to their inclusive fitness
the idea that although each offspring will value the resources it receives more than those dispensed to its siblings, all offspring are equally valuable to a parent in terms of the parent's own inclusive fitness. This then sets up a zone of conflict between how much offspring want and how much a parent is willing to give. Seeing in breaking breastfeeding times in monkeys, in utero/gestational diabetes in humans/breastfeeding (benzodiazepines) in breast milk, etc. More intense in a polygamous system
refers to an outcome in which two or more interacting individuals each receives a net benefit from their joint actions, despite the costs they may have to pay for undertaking such actions
the grooming of another individual, usually by scratching or licking an area of skin to remove parasites; most common form of cooperation seen in animals. Often leads to tension reduction and lower aggression rates within a population.
when an animal helps another animal, but endures the cost which is not immediately paid back. If one animal helps another, the other animal must pay back the cost at some point in the future. Favored when individuals that live within groups interact with the same partners as well as when individuals have the ability to recognize in the future those that had helped them in the past.
a mathematical tool that is used when the payoff that an individual receives for undertaking an action is dependent on what behavior others adopt
ESS (Evolutionary Stable Strategy)
a strategy that, if used by almost all individuals in the population, will not decrease in frequency when new, mutant strategies arise. A strategy that provides the best possible outcome in a game theory model. In Prisoner's dilemma, it is tit for tat and always cheat
a behavioral strategy that instructs a player to initially cooperate with a new partner, and subsequently to do whatever that partner does. An individual cooperates on the initial encounter with a partner and subsequently copies the partner's previous move. It is nice, retaliatory, and forgiving.
a type of cooperation in which an individual pays an immediate cost or penalty for not acting cooperatively, such that the immediate net benefit of cooperating outweighs that of not cooperating. Cooperation is a byproduct of the fact that cheating would result in a cost to the cheater, thus cooperation is the best strategy, there is no temptation to cheat. More likely to appear in a harsh environment because no one will help you if you are hogging the resources available. Example: churr calls when large food items are in vicinity. It is safer to eat with other sparrows around for protection, so the benefits associated with predator detection outweighed the costs of inviting other foragers to share food at the site.
a hierarchical model in which natural selection operates at two levels: within-group selection and between-group selection. A trait is defined as a group in which individuals affect one another's fitness.
acts against cooperation and altruists because such individuals by definition pay some costs that others do not. These achieve the benefits that the cooperators accrue, making them gain fitness without much cost.
favors cooperation when groups with more cooperators out produce other groups. Ex: alarm caller pay a cost within groups, but their sacrifice benefits the group overall
Interactions involving only two individuals. 2 individuals interact in such a way that the fitness of each is affected by both its own action and the action of its partner.
cooperative action taken by at least two individuals or groups against another individual or group. Typically involve an animal intervening in an aggressive bout, coming to the aid of other group members.
coalitions that last long periods of time
any interaction that benefits all parties involved. Interspecies cooperation is often referred to as this. Ex: butterfly pupae secrete a sugary secretion that ants readily consume and ants protect the larvae from harm. Larvae are much less likely to survive without these ants.
Search Image Theory
when animals encounter a prey type more and more, they form some sort of representation of that target and that this representation becomes more successful at finding that prey type, the probability of detecting prey increases with each successful prey capture.
Optimal Foraging Theory
a family of mathematical models developed to predict animal foraging behavior. Each item has an energy value, a time value, and a cost. The greater the energy/handling ratio, the greater the profitability of that prey type. The model assumes that items are found in sequential order, energy intake is measured by a standard currency, prey are recognized instantly and accurately, natural selection favors foragers that maximize their rate of intake, and animals can't eat and simultaneously search for another prey item.
Marginal Value Theorem
a forager should stay in a patch until the rate of food intake associated with the next food item is equal to the average rate of food intake across all other patches
the transfer of information from a signaler to a receiver
horse that was though to be able to do math and other problems. What was actually happening was that the horse was picking up on small facial/body cues when he was getting close to the
if a trait is costly to produce, it may be used as an honest signal, because only those individuals that can pay the cost will typically adopt the signal in question.
an individual plays hawk if it is a territory holder but plays dove if it does not own a territory (butterflies in a patch of sun with a certain flower).
plays dove if a territory holder and hawk if not (spider under a rock flees when new spider enters its territory)
The War of Attrition Model
not actual fighting, just displaying to one another. Individuals can choose to display aggressively for any duration of time, display behavior is costly, there are no clear rules such as size, territory possession, and so forth
Sequential Assessment Model
assesses each other in a series of bouts. Start with the least dangerous behavior and work their way up. The most dangerous behaviors should be displayed by the most evenly matched players. When numerous behaviors are used in a series of bouts, they should be in approximately the same order
a game theory model of aggression. Hawk is a strategy in which the individual escalates until either it is injured or its opponent concedes, and dove is a strategy in which the individual bluffs, initially displaying as if it will escalate, but retreating and ceding the resource if its opponent escalates
Honest Indicators Principle
the idea that traits that are costly to produce are more difficult to fake and hence truly indicate the generic quality of an individual
a measure of fitness that takes into account not only the effect an allele has on its bearer, but also the effect it has on its genetic relatives
a relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience. It differs from social learning in that it does not involve learning from others
a situation in which the learned response to an unconditioned stimulus is stronger when it is presented alone versus when it's paired with a second unconditioned stimulus
the stimulus that sets the occasion for a given response. "fire!" is one that triggers humans to run out of a room
the set of actions that produce an outcome. Without the response, the outcome will not occur
a schedule in which an animal is rewarded under operant conditioning. It can vary according to time or number of correct responses
Behavioral Systems Approach to Learning
the idea that animals have evolved systems of reflexes that correspond to certain functional needs and that learning involves the strengthening/weakening of these reflexes or the weaving in of stimuli and responses into the pre-existing system
refers to the finding that when animals are kept in a particular motivational state for long periods of time, instinctive behaviors begin to show up in operant training scenarios. Ex: pig being taught to put coin in the piggy bank. Does it right, then does it wrong so trainer starts to make it more hungry. Starts to root into the group instead of doing the behavior. This is the natural response to hunger for pigs so starving it does not make it more motivated.
the idea that a familiar stimulus takes longer to acquire meaning to than a new stimulus
the habitual engagement in an activity even when this activity has a perceived, negative effect on all other interests and activities. They are immediate small rewards and decrease the value of other rewards via hangover, depression, etc.
avoiding a just-rewarded choice even when it is known that all choices are equally likely to produce reward
the gambler's fallacy is the result of cognitive adaptation. In foraging situations, once you've overturned a rock and found food, there is no reason to immediately overturn it again.
Hot Hand Fallacy
assumes that a winner is more likely to win in the future. Correlates with cognitive framings in which the individual views a random outcome as caused by the self or an intentional force.
those qualities that make a reward more enticing and are associated with risk-seeking behavior
those qualities that make a reward more easily waited for and are associated with risk-averse behavior
Tragedy of the Commons
resource is open to everyone. You get points for each item that you collect. Conservation does not show up because why would you take care of resources that everyone is using? It is more beneficial to reap the rewards and not pay the cost of maintaining the resource, thus the resource is not taken care of and the tragedy exists.
organism's survival machines built by our genes in order to replicate themselves. It does not matter how a gene gets into the next generation, as long as it does. A gene is defined as any portion of a chromosomal material which potentially lasts for long enough to serve as a unit of natural selection. Sexual selection is a problem for this approach to fitness because that means that genes are voluntarily making it less likely that they will end up in the next generation.
a gene/trait increases in frequency when the costs to the individual are less than the benefits time the relatedness to the individuals involved.
Emlen's Theory of Family
What makes a family with main emphasis on reproductive skew theory, inclusive fitness theory, and ecological constraints. Main predictions are that there is help rearing offspring will be the norm, breeding males will invest less in offspring as their certainty of paternity decreases, and family members will reduce their investment in future offspring after a parent finds a new mate.
brain structure highly correlated with repulsion
Social Intuitionist Model
by pairing the US with the outgroup stimulus (CS) you can condition disgust. The stimulus elicits the individual's intuition (UR) and then the individual's judgement occurs. The reasoning is the post-hoc explanation for the decision of right or wrong and this reasoning is then the stimulus to influence another individual's intuition/feelings.
when one places more value on a gift when it is given away and less value when it is received
Theory that is questioned in the article which says that any adaptation is a spandrel in that anything can be an adaptation if you twist it enough. States that the problems include anything that can be identified as a trait, cost-benefits must be taken into account but these value are relative to the individual's understanding, they refuse to be provided incorrect in that if one is disproved, then they just come up with another explanation, and it emphasizes immediate utility instead of considering the mechanisms that changed before it.
may be considered a personality type/adaptation. Those with them lack emotional normative behavior, are typically antisocial, and have increased risks. They are heritable and can be associated with morbidities. Their diagnosis is by an arbitrary cutoff point. Ex: postpartum depression
refers to cognitive flexibility in the face of large life changes
when resources are minimized to below fitness maximum in order to produce long-term sustainability
the value of a resource is relatively low in this case
the long-term gain compared to taking the resource now and reinvesting in it in the future
any investment in an individual offspring that increases the offspring's chance of survival at the cost of the parent's ability to invest in other offspring over the course of its life. an "altruistic act". Examples: sex cells, territory, nest building, feeding, defending mates, defending offspring.
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