Terms in this set (43)
Who was Margaret Sanger?
A nurse who led the feminist birth control movement. She helped reverse state and federal laws about banning publication and distribution of information about sex and contraception. Many churches (religious leadership organizations?) (from all religions) hated her.
She was arrested all the time.
Describe the social conditions that helped start the modern movement.
In world war ii when many of the men went to war, the women had to step up and start working. Women were now used to working and wanted to continue.
Did the civil rights movement impact the women's movement?
The civil rights movement was priority, so in a way it overshadowed the women's movement.
Many women became involved in civil rights.
Who was Betty Friedan? Explain her reasons for writing "The Feminine Mystique"
Betty Friedan was a housewife and mother with a long history of political activism. She wrote the book because of "the problem with no name" - the dissatisfaction of educated middle class wives and mothers who looked at their homes & families & wondered if this was all there was to life. Frieden blamed society for the problem. She used it as a questionnaire to her peers:
"do you use your college education?" many of them said no because they were mothers at home.
Define sexism. How and when did this term begin?
Sexism: prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination, typically against women, on the basis of sex. (belief that one gender is more superior that the others)
What medical advancement changed the lives of women?
Birth control pill.
Gave women the power to control whether or not they were able to get pregnant.
What were consciousness raising groups? What were topics they discussed?
Consciousness raising groups were groups of young women who gathered to discuss how, in their personal daily lives, women were subordinated by men and by a patriarchal society. They talked about topics such as power relationships in romance and marriage, sexuality, abortion, health care, work, and family.
Name what many feel is the most pressing problem for working women
It is hard to balance work, home life and child care (adequate lol at trying to spell that)
1972 brought 2 major achievements. Name them
On March 22, 1972, Senate Republicans and Democrats joined to approve the Equal Rights Amendment, granting an end to all discriminatory treatment on the basis of sex.
Congress also passed Title IX of the Higher Education Act, which prevented federal funds from going to any college or university that discriminated against women. As a result, universities began to channel money to women's athletics. EYYYYYYYYYYY go women athletes
What was the immediate effect of Roe v Wade?
It was ruled that privacy rights protected a woman's choice to end a pregnancy. Abortion legal through first trimester
Who was Phyllis Schlafly? What did she represent for many young women and men?
Phyllis McAlpin Stewart Schlafly (August 15, 1924) is an American constitutional lawyer, conservative activist, author, and founder of the Eagle Forum. She is known for her staunch social and political conservatism, her opposition to modern feminism, and her successful campaign against ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. Her 1964 book A Choice, Not an Echo was issued in millions of copies as an attack on Nelson Rockefeller and the Eastern Republican Establishment. She co-authored books on national defense and was highly critical of arms-control agreements with the Soviet Union. Schlafly founded the Eagle Forum in the 1970s and the Eagle Forum Education & Legal Defense Fund, St. Louis. As of 2013, she remained the president of both organizations and maintained a presence on the lecture circuit. Women agreed with her to a certain extent.
Explain feminist backlash
women that didn't want change. they liked their home life
There is often perceived to be a backlash against feminism in U.S. politics and public media. After the great successes of the women's liberation movement, a backlash against the "second wave" of feminism began during the 1970s. Social historians anti feminist theorists see the beginning of the political backlash against feminism in several different events:
The volatile political climate surrounding the effort to ratify the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
The anti-feminist groups who attacked the Supreme Court's Roe v. Wade decision
The election of Ronald Reagan
The rise of Jerry Falwell's Moral Majority organization
Other women who were opposed to ERA- like women being on a pedestal
Explain the views of radical feminists
Radical feminism is a perspective within feminism that focuses on the hypothesis of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the assertion that male supremacy oppresses women. Radical feminism aims to challenge and overthrow patriarchy by opposing standard gender roles and oppression of women and calls for a radical reordering of society. Early radical feminism, arising within second-wave feminism in the 1960s, typically viewed patriarchy as a "transhistorical phenomenon" prior to or deeper than other sources of oppression. Over the years radical feminists have been criticized for arguing that male domination of women is the ultimate source of all forms of oppression, for emphasizing sex-based discrimination at the expense of race- and class-based discrimination, for being unwilling to work with men to effect change through political channels and for marginalizing lesbian sexuality.
What are positive characteristics in men that are not positive in women?
Being assertive,strength controlling, success, power, aggressive, ambitious
Explain the double standard. How does it affect marriage, children, aging, etc
Women are called "old" long before men, and men are given more lenient treatment in certain fields, particularly education. Basically, it's treating men different and giving them preferential treatment.- does affect
gray hair-sign of being old
Not equal for both sexes
Explain the original beliefs of NOW
NOW is the National Organization for Women.
Equal pay for equal work
What was its position on marriage? on political activism?
They weren't anti marriage, but they wanted the workload to be equal
Women should be involved in politics, and try to win
(Most women movement after Vietnam)
How did S treat the whole subject?
Basically thought it was trash, he felt that women made it harder on themselves
How did the pill change women's lives?
By delaying childbirth, the Pill allowed women to enter professional schools in rapidly growing numbers.
side effects- high blood pressure etc.
Was there a downside to the pill?
It placed more pressure on women to protect themselves during sex. Cannot predict the future or the outcomes/side effects of using birth control.
Why was the gender gap "the most misunderstood political phenomena of the 20th century?
Men didn't understand the want for women to have work and so they did not see the issue with the gender gap.
How did "no fault" divorce laws impact women?
Men could escape marriage if they no longer desired to be married (younger women, bored, etc.) He only had to say that he did not get along with his wife. No evidence was needed to file divorce. Reasons stated for a divorce included mental cruelty, abuse, verbal abuse, significant differences, etc. Everything was split in half; it made divorce simpler(50/50). Women's standard living went down 75% while the men's standard living went up 45%
Is Illinois a no fault state?
From the reading , what did women achieve?
They were able to go into law, medical, and more schools with "hard sciences"
loss of femininity
Describe the new sets of economic realities for working movement.
Since both parents came home later, more families ate out and had services that the wife used to do. Drained the additional paycheck that wives were bringing in. Financial problem that would arise from dealing with day care as well as women still doing 90% of the shopping and other housework comparative to men's participation.
Describe Zinn's overall assessment of the movement.
He said it was not a success. Overall, he applauded the movement but saw mostly the faults in the movement.
Why is Betty Friedan's famous quote from the passage from The Feminine Mystique on p 505?
"Just what was the problem that has no name? What were the words women used when they tried to express it? Sometimes a woman would say "I don't feel empty somehow...incomplete." Or she would say, "I feel as if I don't exist." Sometimes ..."A tired feeling...I get so angry with the children it scares me...I feel like crying without any reason." Betty Friedan wrote out her experience as a middle-class housewife. The "Feminine Mystique" was the watershed of the women's movement.
Do you think women still tend to live through their husband's and children's lives rather than their own?
Yes. Some women still give up their careers to raise children and end up projecting their dreams onto their children, trying to steer them in the direction they wish they could've gone.
What was the % of working women in 1969? Were they working jobs considered for women only?
40% of the labor force was women. Not always, but usually. Most women were secretaries, cleaning ladies, elementary school teacher, saleswomen, waitresses, and nurses.
How did society view non-working women?
Contrasting views. i.e. mommy wars? Many girls had to defend themselves. View them as lazy.
What are the main problems and concerns of working women? Does it make any difference whether their children are in school or not?
Their children were not being raised by their own mother and that worried people. The kids were in daycare. If children are in school, at least they are being taken care of until 3 or so. Affordable daycare
What was President Johnson's 1967 executive order?
Equal Opportunities Act. Prevented discrimination in employment based upon sex, race, color, religion, or national origin. NOTE: did not yet cover discrimination against sexual orientation. Didn't cover ERA
How has abortion affected poor women?
Could abort the baby if they could not afford to take care of them. Really helpful to poor women especially since at the beginning of legal abortion, it was paid for by the government. They would not have to try and care for the child that they cannot afford. - It changed because abortions were then not covered by the government.
What formerly "not to be talked about" issues were now openly discussed?
Sex/sexuality, abortion, domestic abuse, sexual harassment and pregnancy.
Zinn gives his evaluation of the women's movement in the first paragraph on page 514. What are some of his main points? Does he offer a possible solution?
He said that the main problem was that in order for women to be truly liberated, the whole of society would be turned on its head because controlling people is the foundation of our society. Zinn says that in order for it to work, everyone would have to change their mindset. Everyone, including men and children would have to collectively agree to not be subordinate.
Solution: society changing
A significant concern of second wave feminists in Canada was access to abortion. Until 1969, abortion was illegal, and women were dying from trying to procedure abortions outside of the law. For these reasons, abortion was legalized in 1969, under the conditions that it be performed at a hospital, be approved by a medical committee and be crucial to the woman's health. Only one in five hospitals had the committee required to approve of the operation resulting in many women crossing the border to the United States to receive one.
U.S.A: Abortion was prohibited in 30 states and legal under certain circumstances (such as pregnancies resulting from rape or incest) in 20 states. The Supreme Court 1973 decision Roe v. Wade invalidated all of these laws, and set guidelines for the availability of abortion.
The third wave of Canadian feminism, which is largely perceived to have started in the early 1990s, is closely tied to notions of anti-racism, anti-colonialism, and anti-capitalism. The notion of a sisterhood among women which was prevalent in the second wave, is critiqued by third-wave feminists, who have perceived this seeming universalism to be dismissive of women's diverse experiences, and the ways that women can discriminate against and dominate one another. Third wave feminism is associated with decentralized, grassroots organizing, as opposed to the national feminist organizations prevalent in the second wave.
As well as in the U.S to stop women from competing with others to be the social ideal of "perfect." By doing this women act as if the fight for our equalities was worth for nothing.
American and Canadian Leaders of the Women's Movement
Before the Feminist Movement began, women were expected to:
Marry a man in her early 20s
Start a family
Raise the children while her husband worked
Devote her life to taking care of the house
One woman, living before the movement, stated, "The female doesn't really expect a lot from life. She's here as someone's keeper — her husband's or her children's."
The feminist movement that began opened the door of opportunities and equality for women.
Began as a housewife and a mother in New York who wrote freelance articles for women's magazines
she conducted a survey of her classmates and found most were dissatisfied housewives
she did more research and interviews and it resulted in her book The Feminine Mystique in 1962.
This book focused on the frustration of the housewives that felt trapped and unfulfilled.
It helped ignite the second wave of a feminist movement.
She was known as the "Mother of the Movement"
In addition, she helped co found the National Organization for Women.
She is also known for changing outdated laws including: unequal and firing pregnant women instead of giving maternity leave.
Co-founded Ms. magazine in 1972
-the first magazine to speak honestly and directly about women's issues (first magazine to to talk about domestic abuse)
This magazine helped people take the movement seriously and not just as a joke.
Bella, a bold and outspoken woman, is known for her work in peaces movements and especially in women's rights in the 1960s and 1970s.
She helped organize the /Women Strike for Peace to promote women's issues and to fight for reform.
In addition, she helped Friedan and Steinem established the National Women's Political Caucus which wanted to improve the recruiting, training, and support of women who wanted to seek elected and appointed offices.
She was a Canadian Marxist feminist leader
The idea of Marxism is to emphasise how capitalism uses the family oppresses women, and the harmful consequences of the family to women's lives.
She was a big advocate for equal pay for women in the workforce
Léa was a Canadian social activist, pacifist, and feminist.
In 1960, became a member and was active in the organization "Voice of Women."
She fought to obtain the right to vote for the right to abortion and access to contraceptive pills.
Became a honorary member of the Canadian Institute of the Research of women.
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