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History Unit 9
Terms in this set (76)
Limits presidents to 2 terms
Who were the 1960 election candidates and who won?
Nixon v. Kennedy
Why did Kennedy win?
Television portrayed Kennedy as very polished even though Nixon better expressed himself while debating
What was Kennedy's foreign policy?
Flexible Response form - wanted options in case of international crisis
What was included in Kennedy's flexible response form?
a) having a variety of resources available for international crises (Communism)
b) Green Berets - assist countries to fight in communism
c) Peace Corps
d) Expand Nuclear Arms
What was Kennedy's flexible response to in Africa?
Assisting newly free countries in Africa
What was Kennedy's flex response in Latin America?
Encouraging capitalism and democracy?
What was Kennedy's flex response towards the Berlin Wall?
How the US and allies will respond to this being built?
-created to separate East and Wester Berlin to keep western "facists" from entering East Germany and undermining th socialist state
What was Kennedy's flex plan towards Bay of Pigs?
Use positive spin to assure America and avoid making US look bad
-Full scale [failed] invasion of Cuba by CIA, but invaders were outnumbered by Castro's troops and surrendered
-Fidel Castro wanted to overthrow Cuban dictator and create communist dictatorship
Flex Response for Cuban Missile Crisis
Show as success for cold war policy
-Soviet Union placed missiles in Cuba facing the US
-US enacted a naval blockade, prepared to use military threat
-Khruschev eventually took down missiles to US wouldn't invade Cuba
-Turning point in US Soviet relationship
What was Kennedy's Political and Economic Policy?
-Area redevelopment act helped provide financial assistance to economically distressed regions
-Lowered inflation through increasing gov't spending
-Failed: Congress support bc he couldn't get a lot done bc the congress didnt support him
November 22, 1963
Conspiracies in JFK Assasination
-CIA involvement, Secret Service Agents, 2nd Shooter, Mob ties, Soviets/Vuba
What was the Warren Commission
Assigned to review assassination and determine the facts behind this to end conspiracy talks
What was Johnson's Great Society?
Everyone had a high quality of life, wanted to improve education opportunities for minorities --> enforced through sesame street which showed togetherness
Johnson's Great Society
-Poverty: Tax Reduction Act, Economic opportunity acts to create jobs, "war on poverty"
-Health Care Reform: medicare and medicaid
-Education: Elementary and Secondary Education Act - money to schools and textbooks, Public Broadcasting for educational programs
-Wildlife: wilderness preservation, water quality act, clean air amendment, air quality act
How was technology used in elections, perception of Kennedy's family, and influence on Johnson's Great Society?
-made Kennedy look better, more polished resulting in his win
-portrayed Kennedy's family as being perfect and happy to sway voters
-Johnson utilized Sesame Street to portray togetherness that was demonstrated in his Great Society
Engaged in activities through the community to encourage conversations about diversity and ending inequality
buying land in suburban areas with financing from GI Bill that was not distributed evenly
Gi Bill of Rights
Allowed individuals to purchase homes at great rates, but was only for veterens... white males took advantage of it
Martin Luther King Jr.
Believed in nonviolent resistence and created two groups:
NAACP and SCLC
NAACP - National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
350,000 members today, active in all aspects of equality and civil rights
SCLC - Southern Christian Leadership Conference
-can tract back to Montgomery Bus Boycott, human rights movement transcends national boundaries
Examples of Non Violent Resistence that MLK helped with
Sit ins (sitting down in a location and refusing to leave), Marches, Signages
What was Malcolm X's idea about civil rights
Used violence, believed that "Any Negro who teaches other Negroes to turn the other cheek is disarming that Negro...of his natural right to defend himself." .... "by any means necessary"
Who were the Black Panthers?
believed the nonviolence campaign had failed, very violent, wanted equality in education, housing, employment and civil rights
Native America Struggle for change
Government was not giving the American Indians equal opportunities for land and resources, American prosperity did not reach the Native American cultures
wanted land that was not given to them because of the Guadelupe Hidalgo movements, wanted economic justice and equal rights
Trapped in "domestic life", struggle to get higher education and equal pay in job
Equal Pay Acy
Male and Female workers are paid the same - dindn't cover most jobs
National Organization for Women (NOW)
made visible national progress, but only for white, wealthy women
Roe vs. Wade
Texas resident seeking abortion versus Dallas District Attorney (7-2 in favor of Roe)
Male Female sports in education funded fairly
Mexican Americans in the US - 4 million, poorest, leads educated
Chicano Protest Methods
worker strikes against Caesar Chaves/National Farm WorkerS
American Indian Activitm
Average American-Indian male made 1/2 of what white
Symbilic Protest Methods
American Indian Movement Act
Occupied Mayflower II
Counter-cultural America, ex./ Woodbstock was a celebration of cross cultural movment
If one country fell to communism, others would follow
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
Congress gave President Johnson permission to use 'all means necessary to repel any armed attack against the US
Did the president have lose or strict governing?
Loose interpretation gives the president open interpretation to what he understands from the constitution
Active communits fighters: N. Vietnsam
Supportive communist fighters: China USSR
tactics used by US in Vietnam war
Agent Oranhe: powerful mixture of chemicals --> improven sight lines, help find hiding places
Invading & bombing Cambodia --> disrupt the trading that happened on the Ho CHi Mihn trail
Massive Northern Vietnam surprise attack during 1968 TET holday
-fought house to house in urban environment, costly casualties
casualties, costly, attacks, bombs, etc
withdrawing US troops and turning war over to South Vietnamene
Domestic Response to the war?
Television made people aware of the things that others were not aware of; of how horrible the war really was and how many people we were killing
Kent State Massacre
Kent State Shooting, University students protesting of the brutal treatment of the war in Vietnam because it was televised
Tortured Prisoner of War
Hmong in Laos
-1960 were involved in the secret war in Laos
- Us wanted to fight SE Asia in War, US recruited the Hmong to fight to stop the spread of communism; Hmong were fought down if they were involved in the war, Hmong people fought back (Most in California and MN)
US involvement in Southeast Asia during the vietnem war
Gave military and economic air to help Southern Vietnam, direct attacks against northern vietnam (esp. communist groups)
Occurred in Laos when the US dropped ordnance, many [esp. Hmong] were left out early idk why.
What was modified for Kennedy through the use of television during the election?
his illness wasn't shown, Addison's
Describe Johnson's war on poverty
Congress created a bill calling for the creation of an Office of Economic Opportunity, created a Job Corps, preschool education for lower income families
What was the decline of the Great Society
MLK thought the Great Society had been shot down on the battlefields of Vietnam, no funding for community projects
What was the SCLC involved in
ending discrimination, led by MLK
Civil Rights Act of 1964
banned discrimination in employment
Banned the payment of poll taxed - offered hope to civil rights activists
Selma and the Voting Rights Act
African Americans were able to vote, but were beated and arrested --> protested in Montgomery
Brown vs. Board of Education
Banned racial segregation in schools
women wanted more fair opportunities, homemakers, in 1963 they made up 1/3 of the labor force but still made less than men
Equal Pay Act
illegal for women and men to be paid different wages
Education Amendments Act
outlawed discrimination in higher education
What stirred the Chicano movement?
Filipinos refused to harvest grapes until they received pay increase; Chavez led boycott of grapes
American Indian Activism
affected by poverty, wanted US to pay for land they was taken illegaly
Red power activists occupied jail, protest got ntional news
asked for recognition of American Indian culture and rights
Vietnam War background
French colonization of Vietnam, but gained independence after france and vietnam went to war
US supported France; neither wanted communism tospread
Ho Chi Mihn Trail
Northern vietnam used it as a trail to bring weopons into south vietnam, target for bombing
Media and War
People began to oppose the war as they saw how gruesome it was
What dominated JFK's presidency
concern with international crisis and the threat of nuclear warfare
When did the US and Soviet come to the brink of war?
Cuban Missile Crisis
provided aid for the poor
Student National Coordinating Committee
led to integration of many southern resturants
The SNCC began controversial protests against...
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