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28 terms

APHG Chapter 2-Population

Vocabulary terms for Human Geography: People Place and Culture 9th Edition
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population density
a measure of total population relative to land size (EX: 100 persons per square mile)
arithmetic population density
a country's measure of people per unit of space, which emphasizes differences between countries such as the United States (81/square mile) and Bangledesh (2738/square mile)
physiological population density
the number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land
populaton distribution
descriptions of locations on the Earth's surface where individuals or groups (depending on scale) live
dot map
thematic map in which on dot represents a certain number of people; at a local scale can show each individual farm in a rural for example. As scale increases, data becomes more generalized
megalopolis
term used by urban geographers to describe huge cities such as New York and Tokyo
census
a periodic and official count of a country's total poulation
doubling time
the time it takes for a certain aspect to double (EX: $100 at 10% annually takes seven years to become $200)
population explosion
the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorted doubling times and accelerating rates of increase
natural increase
population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emmigrant or immigrant movements
crude birth rate (CBR)
the number of live births per year per thousand people in a population
crude death rate (CDR)
the number of deaths per year per thousand people in a population
demographic transition
a shift in population growth
stationary population level (SPL)
the level at which a population stablizes, causing concern for the old and an eventual decline in population
population composition
the structure of a population such as age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education
population pyramids
displays the percentages of each age group in the total population by a horizontal bar whose length represents its share. Males are to the left of the center line; females are to the right.
infant mortality rate (IMR)
recorded as a baby's death during the first year following their birth; given as the number of cases per thousand live births
newborn mortality rate
recorded as the number of children who die in the first month of life per thousand live births
child mortality rate
recorded as the number of deaths of children ages one to five; extremely high in Africa and Asia due to protein malnourishment
life expectancy
the number of years, on average, someone may expect to live
infectious diseases
account for 65% of all diseases; resulting from the invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body; vectored and nonvectored (EX: malaria and AIDS)
chronic or degenerative diseases
diseases which manifest in the later stages of life, reflecting higher life expectancies (EX: heart disease, cancers, stroke, diabetes)
genetic or inherited diseases
can be traced to ancestry and found in one's genetic makeup; tend to appear in certain areas, suggesting the need for local treatment
endemic AIDS
this disease is the leading cause of death in many African nations and has spread to every continent, shortening life expectancies world wide
expansive population policies
led by the former Soviet Union and Maoist China to encourage large families by offering tax incentives and other fiscal means; now implemented by many European governments due to an aging population
eugenic population policies
designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others (EX: Nazi Germany, Pre-Civil Rights US, Japan)
restrictive population policies
meant to reduce the rate of natural increase, ranging from contraception to restriction on family size
one child policies
immplemented in China as a way to control its explosive growth rate; families punished financially and with held from educational opportunities for violations