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Vocabulary terms for Human Geography: People Place and Culture 9th Edition

population density

a measure of total population relative to land size (EX: 100 persons per square mile)

arithmetic population density

a country's measure of people per unit of space, which emphasizes differences between countries such as the United States (81/square mile) and Bangledesh (2738/square mile)

physiological population density

the number of people per unit area of agriculturally productive land

populaton distribution

descriptions of locations on the Earth's surface where individuals or groups (depending on scale) live

dot map

thematic map in which on dot represents a certain number of people; at a local scale can show each individual farm in a rural for example. As scale increases, data becomes more generalized


term used by urban geographers to describe huge cities such as New York and Tokyo


a periodic and official count of a country's total poulation

doubling time

the time it takes for a certain aspect to double (EX: $100 at 10% annually takes seven years to become $200)

population explosion

the rapid growth of the world's human population during the past century, attended by ever-shorted doubling times and accelerating rates of increase

natural increase

population growth measured as the excess of live births over deaths; does not reflect either emmigrant or immigrant movements

crude birth rate (CBR)

the number of live births per year per thousand people in a population

crude death rate (CDR)

the number of deaths per year per thousand people in a population

demographic transition

a shift in population growth

stationary population level (SPL)

the level at which a population stablizes, causing concern for the old and an eventual decline in population

population composition

the structure of a population such as age, sex, and other properties such as marital status and education

population pyramids

displays the percentages of each age group in the total population by a horizontal bar whose length represents its share. Males are to the left of the center line; females are to the right.

infant mortality rate (IMR)

recorded as a baby's death during the first year following their birth; given as the number of cases per thousand live births

newborn mortality rate

recorded as the number of children who die in the first month of life per thousand live births

child mortality rate

recorded as the number of deaths of children ages one to five; extremely high in Africa and Asia due to protein malnourishment

life expectancy

the number of years, on average, someone may expect to live

infectious diseases

account for 65% of all diseases; resulting from the invasion of parasites and their multiplication in the body; vectored and nonvectored (EX: malaria and AIDS)

chronic or degenerative diseases

diseases which manifest in the later stages of life, reflecting higher life expectancies (EX: heart disease, cancers, stroke, diabetes)

genetic or inherited diseases

can be traced to ancestry and found in one's genetic makeup; tend to appear in certain areas, suggesting the need for local treatment

endemic AIDS

this disease is the leading cause of death in many African nations and has spread to every continent, shortening life expectancies world wide

expansive population policies

led by the former Soviet Union and Maoist China to encourage large families by offering tax incentives and other fiscal means; now implemented by many European governments due to an aging population

eugenic population policies

designed to favor one racial or cultural sector of the population over others (EX: Nazi Germany, Pre-Civil Rights US, Japan)

restrictive population policies

meant to reduce the rate of natural increase, ranging from contraception to restriction on family size

one child policies

immplemented in China as a way to control its explosive growth rate; families punished financially and with held from educational opportunities for violations

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