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Spinal 2 Quiz Questions Class 152 Test 3
Terms in this set (130)
What is the traditional time of appearance of the cervical curve said to be?
During the last trimester in utero
What developmental events are indicated in the formation of the adult cervical curve?
centers for vision and equilibrium will appear in the brain musculature attaching the skull, cervical region, and upper thorax together develops the head is held upright
the intervertebral disc height becomes greater anterior than posterior
What is the name given to the integration of visual and motor pathways associated with hold the head erect?
the righting reflex
What is the locations for the cerviacl kyphosis?
between occiput and C1
What infant activities are associated with the developmental of the lumbar curve?
crawling and walking
What is the gender bias associated with the lumbar curve convexity?
females have a greater convexity of the lumbars
What is the relationship between curve directions and handedness?
a right handed person has a high probability for right thoracic, left lumbar curve combination
What clinical examples of abnormal curvatures along with the vertebral column were stressed in class?
military neck, humpback or hunchback, and swayback
What are the curves classifications for military neck?
a kyphosis or hypolordotic curve
What are the curve classifications for swayback?
lordosis or hyperlordotic curve
What are the classifications of scoliosis acording to the Scoliosis Research Society?
magnitude, location, direction, etiology, and structural/non-structural
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of infantile idiopathic scoliosis?
left thoracic, male, less than 1% incidence
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis?
right thoracic, females over 6 years old, 12%-21% incidence
Identify the curve direction, location, gender bias and incidence of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?
right thoracic or right thoracic and left lumbar, females, 80% incidence
Which transversospinalis muscles attaches to the articular and mamillary processes along the spine?
Which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the origin- insertion combination?
iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum and multifidis lumborum
What is the proposed function of the sub occipital muscle group?
posterior stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints
Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii?
acts as a propioceptive transducer in conjuction with inter spinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine to maintain appropriate posture
The quadratus lumborum is implicated in the formation of which ligament?
the ilioumar ligament
Identify all the muscle groups innervated by dorsal primary rami branch patterns?
splenius, erector spinae, transversospinalis, suboccipital, interspinalis, levator costarum and intertransversarii
Based on manner of action, define neurotransmitter?
a neuroactive substance acting rapidly and locally on a target cell
What are the basic morphologies of a neuron?
unipolar, bipolar, pseudounipolar, and multipolar neurons
What are the possible locations of bipolar neurons?
the nasal olfactory epithelium, the retina, the vestibular or Scarpa's ganglion, and the cochlear or spiral ganglion
What are the possible locations of pseudounipolar neurons?
any sensory ganglion other than those of the eight cranial nerve
What is the morphology of most motor or efferent neurons associated with the peripheral nerve system?
What are the three classifications of sensory receptor endings?
functional specificity, distribution-function and structure or morphology
What do chemoreceptors monitor?
hypoxia or decreased oxygen levels, hypercapnia or increased carbon dioxide levels and elevated hydrogen ions, an indication of circulation blood pH
What is the site or location for chemoreceptors?
a glomus or body
What do baroreceptors monitor?
the monitor blood pressure by evaluating stretch or tension along the length of the receptor ending
what is the site or location for baroreceptors?
specialized vascular sinuses
What are the types and examples of exteroceptors
A) general or cutaneous sense organs such as free nerve endings, encapsulated endings and epidermal endings
B)special sense receptors for olfaction, vision, hearing, and taste
What are examples of proprioceptors?
Golgi tendon organs, neuromuscular spindles, Pacinian corpuscles, inner ear receptors for equilibrium and specialized receptors in joints
What are the three groups of sensory receptors endings based on morphology?
free nerve endings, epidermal nerve endings, and encapsulated nerve endings
What is the example of tactile corpuscles?
Which type of encapsulated nerve ending is sensitive to vibration?
lamellated corpuscles or Pacinian corpuscles
What are the primary neuronal projections observed in a nerve?
peripheral sensory processes and motor nerve fibers
Contrast the sensory ganglion with the motor ganglion.
Sensory ganglia contain primary sensory neuron cell bodies and lack synapses;
Motor ganglia contain secondary motor neuron cell bodies and always demonstrate synapses
Muscles derived from somites are innervated by which cranial nerves?
cranial nerve III or oculomotor nerve, cranial nerve IV or trochlear nerve, cranial nerve VI or abducens nerve, and cranial nerve XII or hypoglossal nerve
Muscles derived from the branchial or pharyngeal arches are innervated by which cranial nerves?
cranial nerve V or trigeminal nerve, cranial nerve VII or facial nerve, cranial nerve IX or glossopharyngeal nerve, cranial nerve X or vagus nerve, and cranial nerve XI or spinal accessory nerve
What is the location for the secondary sympathetic efferent neurons?
a prevertebral ganglion or paravertebral ganglion
What are the four classifications of afferent neurons?
somatic afferent, visceral afferent, special visceral afferent, and special sensory
What do visceral afferents monitor?
barorecepion, chemoreception, sensation from viscera
What do special visceral afferents monitor?
olfaction and taste
What do special sensory afferents monitor?
vision, hearing, equilibrium
Cranial nerve I is an example of which classification of sensory pathway?
special visceral afferent
What is unusual about the receptor endings of the primary olfactory neuron?
it is an olfactory knob covered with olfactory cilia
What forms the true olfactory nerve?
What is the location for synapse between primary and secondary afferent neurons of the first cranial nerve?
What is the name of the traditional secondary afferent neuron of the first cranial nerve?
What is the function of the rod cell?
provide vision in dim light conditions
What is the function of the cone cell?
provide vision in bright light conditions and mediate color vision
What is the most numerous photoreceptor cell?
What forms the optic nerve?
axons of the ganglion cells
What occurs at the optic chiasma?
part of the optic nerve decussates
Axons carried in the second cranial nerve will synapse in what specific location?
lateral geniculate nucleus
At its apparent origin cranial nerve III conveys which classification of neural pathways?
somatic efferent pathway and visceral efferent pathway
What is/are the target organ(s) for the somatic efferent fibers carried in the third cranial nerve?
medial rectus, interior rectus, superior rectus, and inferior oblique extrinsic muscles of the eyeball and the levitator palpebrae superioris muscle of the eyelid
Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the third cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?
accessory oculomotor nucleus of Edinger/Westphal
What is the location of synapse for preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve?
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the third cranial nerve synapse in what targets?
sphincter pupillae and ciliaris intrinsic eye muscles
What are the two unique features of the fourth cranial nerve?
it is the only cranial nerve with an apparent origin from the dorsal surface of the brain;
it is the only cranial efferent nerve to decussate within the midbrain from its nucleus
The right fourth cranial nerve will innervate which side target muscle?
the right side muscle
Somatic efferent fibers from the fourth cranial nerve will innervate which muscle(s)?
superior oblique extrinsic muscle of the eye
Typically, primary afferent neurons of the fourth cranial nerve located in the semilunar ganglion, Gasserian ganglion or trigeminal ganglion will synapse in what nucleus?
spinal trigeminal nucleus
Which of the cranial nuclei of termination contain primary afferent neurons?
mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
The fifth cranial nerve is functionally referred to as the ___.
great sensory nerve of the face
What is the exit site site from the cranial vault for each division of the fifth cranial nerve?
ophthalmic nerve - superior orbital fissure, maxillary nerve - foramen rotundum, mandibular nerve - foramen ovale
At its apparent origin cranial nerve V conveys which classifications of neural pathways?
somatic afferent path way and branchial efferent pathway
Central sensory processes carried in the fifth cranial nerve synapse with secondary sensory neuron cell bodies in what location?
mainly in the principal sensory nucleus; some in the spinal trigeminal nucleus
What muscles are innervated by branchial efferent fibers conveyed int the fifth cranial nerve?
temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani and tensor veli palatini
Afferent neurons within the mesencephalic nucleus that are associated with sensation from the muscles of mastication will synapse at what locations?
trigeminal motor nucleus or spinal trigeminal nucleus
At its apparent origin cranial nerve VI conveys which classification of neural pathways?
somatic efferent pathway
The sixth cranial nerve will innervate what target organs(s)?
lateral rectus extrinsic muscle of the eye
Peripheral sensory processes conveyed in the sixth cranial nerve will communicate with which cranial branch?
ophthalmic division of trigeminal
Because of its function, the seventh cranial nerve is often called the ___.
the great motor nerve of the face
What classifications of fibers are conveyed at the apparent origin of the seventh cranial nerve?
branchial efferent, visceral efferent, somatic afferent, special visceral afferent
What is the name of the afferent ganglion for the seventh cranial nerve?
geniculate ganglion, genicular ganglion
Most of the seventh cranial nerve will exit the skull via what opening?
the stylomastoid foramen
Into what region of the head will the stylomastoid foramen open?
the parotid region
Branchial efferent fibers carried in the seventh cranial nerve will innervate what muscles?
muscles of facial expression, muscles of the scalp and auricle, the buccinator, platysma, stapedius, stylohyoid, and posterior belly of digastric
Visceral efferent fibers conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve originate from which nucleus?
superior salivatory nucleus
Preganglionic visceral efferent fibers of cranial nerve VII will exit the pons in what nerve
nervus intermedius, nerve of Wrisberg, sensory root of facial nerve
Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?
greater petrosal or greater superficial petrosal nerve
Which branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic fibers into the pterygopalatine ganglion?
vidian nerve or nerve of the pterygoid canal
What are the names of the ganglion of synapse in the efferent pathway to the lacrimal gland?
pterygopalatine ganglion, sphenopalatine ganglion, Meckel's ganglion
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the pterygopalatine, sphenopalatine or Meckel's ganglion will become incorporated in which cranial nerve branch?
maxillary nerve of the trigeminal
Which branch of the zygomatic nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland?
The zygomaticotemporal nerve will convey postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the lacrimal gland through a communication with branch of the fifth cranial nerve?
Which immediate branch of the seventh cranial nerve will convey preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands?
chorda tympani nerve
The chorda tympani nerve exits the temporal bone via what opening?
the petrotympanic fissure of the temporal bone
Peripheral sensory processes from receptors around the ear and mastoid region are conveyed to the seventh cranial nerve from what other cranial nerve?
In general, somatic afferent pathways typically terminate on which nucleus?
the spinal trigeminal nucleus
Peripheral sensory processes form taste receptors in the anterior two thirds of the tongue are conveyed in the seventh cranial nerve to what ganglion?
genicular ganglion or geniculate ganglion
What fluid separates the membranous labyrinth from the bony labyrinth?
In what elevations of each part of the vestibular apparatus will receptor cells be identified?
the macula of the saccule, the macula of the utricle, and the crista ampullaris of the ampullae of semicircular ducts
What is unique to the receptor cells associated with equilibrium?
stereocilia and a single kinocilium
What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with equilibrium?
Scarpa's ganglion or the vestibular ganglion
Receptor cells associated with hearing are located in what structure?
the organ of Corti in the cochlear duct or scala media
What is the location of the primary afferent neuron associated with hearing?
the spiral ganglion or cochlear ganglion
Branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the ninth cranial nerve will innervate what target?
Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers will be found in what branch(es) of the ninth cranial nerve?
the tympanic nerve and lesser (superficial) petrosal nerve
Preganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the ninth cranial nerve will synapse in which ganglion?
otic ganglion or Arnold's ganglion
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers from the otic or Arnold's ganglion will communicate with what other cranial nerve branch?
the auriculotemporal branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal
Peripheral afferent processes associated with receptors in the mastoid air cells, in the tympanic cavity or in the auditory tube arise from pseudounipolar neurons located in what ganglion of the ninth cranial nerve?
the superior glossopharyngeal ganglion or jugular ganglion
What is/are the target organs(s) monitoring blood pressure or blood physiology which are supplied by the ninth cranial nerve?
carotid body or carotid glomus and the carotid sinus
Ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar neuron cell bodies monitoring general visceral sensation are located in which ganglion?
inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion
Central sensory processes from ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar neuron cell bodies monitoring general visceral sensation will synapse in what location of the brain?
cardiorespiratory nucleus of the nucleus solitarius
Ninth cranial nerve pseudounipolar sensory neuron cell bodies monitoring taste are located in which ganglion?
inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion
Branchial efferent fibers conveyed in the tenth cranial nerve will innervate what target organs(s)?
muscles of the soft palate; constrictor muscles of the pharynx; cricothyroid muscle and palatoglossus muscle
Postganglionic parasympathetic efferent fibers of the tenth cranial nerve are distributed to which target organ(s)?
smooth muscle of the trachea, bronchi, pharynx esophagus, stomach, small intestine, color (to the splenic flexure), and heart as well as to the liver and pancreas
Peripheral processes of pseudounipolar afferent neurons of the tenth cranial nerve associated with general visceral sensation are carried in the tenth cranial nerve to what location?
the nodose ganglion or the inferior vagal ganglion
Central processes of pseudounipolar neurons associated with general visceral sensation are carried in the tenth cranial nerve to synapse at what location?
the cardiorespiratory nucleus of the nucleus solitarius
What is/are the target organs(s) monitoring blood pressure or blood physiology supplied by the tenth cranial nerve?
aortic body or aortic glomus and the aortic arch
What are pseudounipolar primary afferent neurons associated with taste sensation from the epiglottis located?
the nodose ganglion or inferior vagal ganglion
Central processes of pseudounipolar primary afferent neurons of the tenth cranial nerve a associated with taste sensation will synapse in what location of the brain?
gustatory nucleus of the nulceus solitarius
The cranial root of the eleventh cranial nerve is annexed by which nerve?
the vagus nerve
what will branchial efferent fibers from the cranial root of the cranial nerve XI innervate?
intrinsic skeletal muscles of the larynx
What is unique about the eleventh cranial nerve?
it is the only cranial nerve to originate, in part, from the spinal cord and its the only cranial nerve to be associated with the foramen magnum
What will branchial efferent fibers in the spinal root of cranial nerve XI innervate?
sternocleidomastoideus and trapezius muscles
Branches of the twelfth cranial nerve provide somatic efferent innervation to which extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
genioglossus muscle, styloglossus muscle, and hyoglossus muscles
Peripheral processes form sensory receptors in the dural mater of the poster cranial fossa will be conveyed from the twelfth cranial nerce to what nerve?
the ventral ramus of the first cervical nerve
Identify the ganglia associated with the cranial parasympathetic efferent pathways.
the ciliary ganglion
the sphenopalatine ganglion, pterygopalatine ganglion or Meckels's ganglion
the submandibular ganglion
the otic or Arnold's ganglion
the intramural ganglia
What ganglia contains primary pseudounipolar neurons associated with taste?
geniculate ganglion or genicular ganglion, inferior glossopharyngeal ganglion or petrosal ganglion and the inferior vagal ganglion or nodose ganglion
Which cranial nerves lack separate nucleus of origin for their efferent pathways to skeletal muscles?
the glossopharyngeal nerve, the vagus nerve the spinal accessory nerve
Which cranial nerves exit the cranial vault via the superior orbital fissure?
the oculomotor nerve the trochlear nerve, the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve and the abducent nerve or abducens nerve
What are the openings by which the facial nerve and its branches exit the temporal bone?
the stylomastoid foramen, the petrotympanic fissure and the hiatus for the greater petrosal nerve
Which cranial nerve exits the skull, returns to a cranial fossa and then exits the skull again?
What are the primary neuronal projections observed in a nerve?
peripheral sensory processes and motor nerve fibers
What specific types of nerve fibers may be associated with spinal nerves?
a) somatic efferent fibers
b) preganglionic visceral, involuntary or autonomic efferent fibers
c)postganglionic visceral, involuntary or autonomic efferent fibers
Contrast the sensory/afferent ganglion with the motor/efferent ganglion.
sensory/afferent ganglia contains pseudounipolar, primary sensory neurons and lack synapses
motor/efferent ganglia contain, multipolar, secondary motor neurons and always demonstrate synapses
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