Chapter 19 Terms, People, Events
Early Latin America
Terms in this set (53)
Royal courts of appeals established in Spanish New World colonies, staffed by professional magistrates who made and applied laws.
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish priest (1484-1566) who travelled to New World with conquistadores and sent back to Spain reports of the brutalities against the natives. Recommended to young king of Spain, Charles I, also Charles V of HRE, that the use of natives for slave labor be terminated. Had come to recognized them as God's children being grossly mistreated. Alas, he offered the King an alternative in the form of slaves to be imported from West Africa. Not until they began arriving in the New World and were treated similarly did Las Casas recognize them to be every bit as human as the Indians. He had inadvertantly stimulated one of the great human tragedies of modern times.
Merchant guild of Seville with a virtual monopoly over goods shipped to Spanish America, handled much of the silver shipped in return.
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado
Hearing of the vast riches of the "Seven Cities of Cibolo," The explorer and his team set out in 1540 to America. Although they did not discover the Seven Cities, the team managed to discover the Grand Canyon and southwest US. They were disappointed and reported failure to Mexico.
The holder of a grant of native Americans who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor, responsible for their integration into the church
Grants of estates Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Latin America, established a framework for relations based on economic dominance.
Spanish explorer who began conquest of Inca Empire in 1535.
Spanish explorer who led expedition to Mexico in 1519, defeated Aztec Empire and established Spanish colonial rule.
Greatest mercury deposit in South America, used in American silver
This was the group of people that was important in converting Asians and Latin Americans to Catholicism which allowed for the mass spread of Christianity. During Bourbon reforms, Jesuits were expelled from Spain and empire in 1767 and from Portugal in 1759.
Jose de Galvez
Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform, moved to eliminate Creoles from the upper colonial bureaucracy, created intendants for the local government.
University-trained lawyers from Spain, basic personnel of the Spanish colonial bureaucratic system.
Backwoodsmen from Sao Paulo, Brazil, penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.
Rio de la Plata
Bourbon reforms in this area and New Granada in 1778 to provide better administration and defense. In 1776, Charles III organized a fourth viceroyalty in this region, including present day Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia. Also, a hundred cattle abandoned here in 1587 became 100,000, twenty years later.
Bernardino de Sahagun
Spaniard arrives in Mexico, learns Aztec, interviews natives
Does oral histories in a way that would be taught today.
Wrote "Florentine Codet" but Spanish crown confiscated it because it was an outline of Aztec religion and they didn't want it to become a tool to further Aztec religion. This document is the single most important thing in Aztec history
Treaty of Tordesillas
Concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession, Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht
This was the treaty that ended the War of Spanish Succession. It was signed in 1714. It kept Spain and France from uniting as one country and checked the power of Louis XIV.
War of the Spanish Succession
1701-1714, European war which was caused by the death of the last Spanish Hapsburg, caused by the succession of the Bourbon family to the Spanish throne in 1701, ended by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, resulted in recognition of Bourbons, territorial loss, and grants of commercial rights to English and French
sociedad de castas
Spanish-American social system based on racial origins; Europeans on top, mixed race in the middle, Indians and African slaves at the bottom.
Casa de Contratacion
Spanish board of trade operated out of Seville, regulated commerce with the New World
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port used for mines of Minas Gerais, became capital in 1763.
The Recopilacion was a Spanish constitution that specifically affected the colonies in the Caribbean. It acted to simplify the bureaucracy and solidify laws.
Largest New World silver mine, located in Bolivia.
Rural agricultural and herding estates, produced for consumers in America, basis for wealth and power of the local aristocracy.
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conqueror of Araucanian Indians of Chile, established city of Santiago in 1541
Capital of New Spain, built on ruins of Tenochitlan
Large heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain, basis of convoy system used for transportation of bullion.
for 60 years (1580-1640) Spain and Portugal ruled by the same monarchs, a situation that promoted their cooperation and gave the Habsburg kings of Spain and Portugal a worldwide empire
Juan Gines de Sepulveda
He was the adversary of Bartolomé de las Casas in the Valladolid Controversy in 1550 concerning the justification of the Spanish Conquest of the Indies. Sepúlveda was the defender of the Spanish Empire's right of conquest, of colonization, and of evangelization in the so-called New World.
Brazilian region where gold was discovered in 1695, a gold rush followed.
Spanish born residents of the New World
Term used in Mexico for local magistrates.
Diego de Landa
Bishop of Yucatan
Came up with original alphabet for the Mayans
Spanish priest that tried to convert the Mayas to Roman Catholicism; burned Mayan codices because they had superstition and lies of the devil
People of European ancestry born in Spanish New World colonies, dominated local economies , ranked socially below peninsulares.
Actions of absolute rulers which have been influenced by the philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment.
Marquis of Pombal
Prime Minister of Portugal (1755-1776) strengthened royal authority in Brazil, expelled the Jesuits, enacted fiscal reforms, and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Mestizo leader of Indian revolt in Peru, supported by many in the lower social classes, revolt failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
Areas along the Brazilian coast granted to Portuguese nobles for colonial development.
A popular revolt against Spanish rule in a New Granada in 1781, suppressed due to government concessions and divisions among rebels.
group of islands that stretches from the Virgin Islands (Lesser Antilles) and includes cuba, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico (Greater Antilles)
The Muslim kingdom, in present day southern Spain, that Spain conquered in 1492. In 1502, the Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity or be expelled or killed.
First island in the Caribbean, settled by Spaniards, settled by Columbus
Forced labor system replacing Indian slaves and encomienda workers, used to mobilize labor for mines and other projects.
the name given to one of the viceroy-ruled territories of the Spanish Empire from 1525 to 1821 - today it is Central America, plus Mexico, plus Southwest United States
Philip of Anjou
In 1701, when Spanish king, Charles II died without a heir, this Bourbon and a relative of the King of France was named successor to the Spanish throne after the War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713).
Pedro Cieza de Leon
-was a Spanish conquistador and chronicler of Peru. He is known primarily for his history and description of Peru, Crónicas del Perú
-Spanish conquest of Peru and the civil wars among the Spaniards, much of their importance lies in his detailed descriptions of geography, ethnography, flora and fauna. He was the first European to describe some native Peruvian animal species and vegetables.
-HOWEVER it was told from his perspective
Capital of the Incan Empire
Sancho de Monco
as early as 1619, Sancho de Moncada wrote that "the poverty of Spain resulted form the discovery of the Indies"
spanish conquistador first to set foot in Cuzco felt remorse for conquering incans and wanted to give back their rightful land on their deathbed
"good noble" A Native American tribe that was wiped out by Columbus and the Spaniards.
Columbia; new viceroyalities were created to provide better adminstration and defense to the growing populations of this region in 1739
the location of the defeat that ended the spanish resistance in cuba