Terms in this set (102)
Individuals with ASD have abnormalities in which three domains?
Communication, behavior, socialization
What are some communication deficits?
1.) Absence or incorrect use of language or meaningful speech.
2.) Delays in non-verbal communication.
What are some communication excesses?
1.) Use of echolalia
2.) Use of jargon
What are behavior deficits?
1.) Limited to no imitation skills
2.) Difficulty with transitions
3.) Inflexibility with routines
4.) Insistence on sameness
5.) Preoccupations with or interest in only a few items
What are behavior excesses?
1.) Unusual noises
2.) Laughing/crying for no apparent reason
3.) Fascination with spinning objects
4.) Sensitivity to certain noises, touch, taste, smells
5.) Repetitive motor movements
6.) Tantrums that are more severe than same-age peers
7.) Self-injurious behavior
What are socialization deficits?
1.) Limited eye contact
2.) Limited imitation
3.) Joint attention
4.) Limited play
5.) Plays alone
6.) Little interaction with/interest in other children
7.) Dislikes social touch
8.) Delayed or no response to name
What are some indirect behavioral assessments?
Answering questions about behavior after it occurs (questionnaires, interviews, rating scales).
What are some direct behavioral assessments?
Recording behavior as it occurs, including direct observation (tallies, ABC chart).
What is an FBA?
Functional behavior assessment = Identify problem behavior, initiate data collection, complete FA, treatment development and implementation, evaluation.
What is an FA?
Functional Assessment = manipulating environment to see the affect on behavior based on hypotheses about antecedents and consequences.
What is frequency?
How often does a behavior occur in a certain time period? (Tally each time the behavior occurs during that period)
What is duration?
How long does the behavior last?
What is latency?
How long after a certain event did the behavior occur? (Gave SD "Look at me," and 6 seconds later the child made eye contact)
What is whole-interval recording?
After ______ seconds, the therapist records whether the behavior occurred for the entire interval.
What is partial-interval recording?
After ______ seconds, the therapist records whether the behavior occurred at any time during the interval.
What is momentary time sampling/recording?
After ______ seconds, the therapist records whether the behavior occurred at that moment.
What is per opportunity recording?
Recording the child's response to a particular event?
What is permanent product?
Example: Grading a child's worksheet to see how they did.
What is on the vertical axis of the graph?
How high or low the behavior was during the observation (dependent)
What is on the horizontal axis of the graph?
When the behavior occurred/shows change over time. (Independent)
What is an ABC chart?
Antecedent (what happens before the behavior), Behavior (what the child's response is), Consequence (what happens after the behavior)
What is an SD?
Discriminative stimulus (instruction or cue that evokes a response or behavior)
What is a negative reinforcer?
Taking away something aversive that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again in the future (ex. seatbelt beeping)
What is a positive reinforcer?
The addition of something that increases the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future (ex. if a toy is reinforcing, giving the child that toy).
What is a negative punishment?
The removal of something that decreases the likelihood of the behavior occurring again. Also called response cost. (ex. removing a toy/token, etc.)
What is a positive punishment?
The addition of something that decreases the likelihood of the behavior occurring again (ex. if the child dislikes cleaning their room, making them clean their room)
How do you effectively use reinforcers?
Restrict them so they are only used as reinforcers, deliver them immediately after the behavior, vary reinforcers (generally), small amount of reinforcer at a time, deliver with social praise.
Describe what the child did well in regards to the target behavior, but keep it simple. Always use this!
Praising the child using general statements (Good job!)
What is a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement?
Reinforce every ____ (5th, 10th, etc) response.
What is a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?
Reinforce on average every _____ (5th, 10th, etc) response.
What is a fixed interval schedule of reinforcement?
Reinforce every ____ seconds, minutes, hour.
What is a variable interval schedule of reinforcement?
Reinforce on average every ____ seconds, minutes, hour.
What is continuous reinforcement?
Reinforce every correct response. Used when teaching a new skill.
What is a differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)?
Offering a known reinforcer if the target behavior does NOT occur during a specified time interval.
What is a differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior (DRL)?
Reinforcement occurs if and only if fewer than # behaviors occurs during a given amount of time.
What is a differential reinforcement of lower rates of behavior-T (DRL-T)?
Responses are reinforced if they occur after a certain amount of time has passed; set above the average IRT (InterresponseTime (IRT)= The elapsed time between two successive responses).
What is a differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA)?
Reinforce a functionally alternative behavior.
What is a differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI)?
Reinforce the behavior that is incompatible with the targeted behavior.
What is a differential reinforcement of higher rates of behavior (DRH)?
Reinforce a minimum (or more) of # behaviors in a given time period.
What is a primary (unconditioned) reinforcer?
Reinforcer that is biologically pre-determined/innate. (Food, water, sleep, warmth, air, etc).
What is a secondary (conditioned) reinforcer?
Learned reinforcers (often paired with a primary or established secondary reinforcer).
What is a token economy?
Token boards, money... Collect enough and exchange for a bigger reinforcer.
What is a discriminative stimulus?
It is an SD --> an instruction or cue that evokes a behavior or response.
Rules for SD's
Should be short, consistent, generalizable, not repeated without first giving a consequence.
What is stimulus control?
Whether or not an SD or event is reliability followed by a specific response/behavior.
Note: You must be aware of what the SD is (if you always tap while giving SD, the tap may be under stimulus control and not the SD). At first, the SD will usually be paired with an event (prompt) that already evokes the response.... then the prompt will be faded and the stimulus control will transfer to the SD.
What is fading?
Gradual removal of the prompt while the response occurs in the presence of the desired SD.
What is a verbal prompt?
Spoken prompt that the child hears-- must be able to understand spoken language.
SD--> What is your name? Prompt--> Say Toby...
What is a visual prompt?
The child sees the prompt -- must be able to imitate.
What is a gestural prompt?
A form of a visual prompt. This could include pointing, etc. An example would be...
SD: Look at me, P: Hold candy by eyes.
What is a modeling prompt?
Show the child what to do. Example...
SD: Touch your head, P: Touch your own head.
What is a mand?
A request for a desired item.
What is a tact?
Labeling an item.
What is a physical prompt?
Child must be comfortable being touched. Most often used with activities of daily living. An example is....
SD: Touch blue, P: Guide child's hand to blue
What is environmental arrangement?
Environment is arranged to produce a response. Example...
SD: Touch blue, P: The blue block is placed closest to the child.
How to effectively use prompts?
Should be used at the same time as the SD and when teaching new skills, use lowest level of prompt possible, be consistent with prompts, be sure child has prerequisite skills to use prompt.
How do you fade a verbal prompt?
Say it more and more softly or say less and less of the word
How do you fade a visual prompt?
Gesture further and further away from the correct answer.
How to fade a physical prompt?
Use less and less pressure until you are only hovering above their hand.
How to fade an environmental prompt?
Use less and less environmental arrangement. Ex: SD- touch blue, P- blue block closer to child than other blocks... Fading P- slowly move block back by other blocks.
What are the three ways to fade a prompt?
Fade gradually, Stop prompting suddenly after intense prompting, or use prompt delay (Present SD, wait for a few seconds, and then provide prompt if needed... gradually increase the time)
What is trail and error learning?
Presenting SD's and prompting only when the child fails to respond correctly.
What is errorless learning?
Errorless learning is a procedure used to prompt correct behavior and responses so that the child doesn't even have an opportunity to make a mistake.
What is shaping?
Involves reinforcing approximations of target behavior. Ex: cookie --> I want a cookie.
What is a task analysis?
Breaking down behavior into smaller parts.
What is forward chaining?
Teach the child the first step until it is mastered. Continue to let them do mastered steps independently, then teach the next step.
What is backward chaining?
Teach the last step until it is mastered. Then second to last step and so on.
What is total task presentation?
Entire sequence is taught all at once and each step is prompted. Prompts are faded whenever a task is mastered... not in any particular order.
What is a mass trial?
Child works on the same skill for several trials in a row. OR Work on same general skills (motor imitation) several trials in a row.
When is a mass trial most often used?
When teaching a new behavior/response.
What is an interspersed trial?
Skill being worked on changes every (or every few) trials. Most often used with previously learned skills.
When is an interspersed trial most often used?
When practicing learned responses.
What are three different generalization strategies?
Learning from different people, in different environments, or from different teaching materials.
What are some general rules when teaching a skill?
Child should be attending before issuing a demand, break skills down, make sure child has prerequisite skills, make sure you give sufficient prompting, make sure you have a true reinforcer and reinforce often.
What is behavioral momentum?
Create a "momentum of compliance." I.e. present several easy/preferred task follow by a more difficult/non-preferred task.
What are the four general functions of behaviors?
SEAT --> Gain access to attention, tangible, sensory stimulation or to escape.
What is a direct way to gather data for an FBA?
Scatterplots, ABC's, direct observation.
What is an indirect way to gather data for an FBA?
Interviews, subjective rating scales, etc.
What is extinction?
When a behavior that was previously reinforced is no longer reinforced. At the same time, use differential reinforcement to teach a new behavior to replace the problem behavior.
What is an extinction burst?
After you stop reinforcing a behavior, it gets worse before it gets better.
What is response cost?
A portion of the earned behavior is lost following the occurrence of an inappropriate behavior (negative punishment). Be sure to start with a lot of reinforcers and never threaten.
What is overcorrection?
Procedure where the child has to return the environment to its original state or better.
What are the two types of overcorrection?
Restitutional and Positive Practice
What is restitutional overcorrection?
Child must restore the environment to an even better state than before the behavior occurred.
What is positive practice?
Over practice a replacement behavior to the point where they become agitated. (This teaches the child that it is more work to do the problem behavior than to just do it right the first time)
How do you effectively use overcorrection?
Do not reinforce during overcorrection, physical prompting is usually necessary, be prepared for protest behaviors.
What is time-out?
The removal from a reinforcing environment. Must make sure the function of the behavior is not escape, otherwise time-out will act as a reinforcing behavior.
What are the two types of time-out?
Exclusionary: Child is completely removed from time-in setting.
Non-exclusionary: Occurs in the same area as time in, but don't have access to reinforcing items/activities
What are common errors of time out?
Leaving child in time out for too long (should do 1-3 minutes with 5 second without problem behaviors), always removing child another environment, interacting with child during time out, allowing the time-out to end while the child is engaging in problem behaviors, not using it consistently, not making sure that time-in is reinforcing.
What are continuous data recording methods?
Keeping track of all behavior occurring (count, frequency, duration)
What is count?
Just counting the number of times a response occurred.
What are discontinuous data recording methods?
In this case, some behaviors may not be detected (whole or partial interval, momentary time-sampling)
When should data be entered? Graphs updated?
Within 24 hours, within one week
How should behavior be defined?
In a way that is observable, measurable, and agreed upon by all. Specific and objective.
What are three ways to conduct a preference assessment?
Ask the person, free operant observation, trial-based methods
What is free operant observation?
A form of conducting a preference assessment. During a certain amount of time, allow child free access to preferred items and see which item child spends most time with.
What is trail based method for conducting a preference assessment?
Offer choices and create a hierarchy to determine top reinforcer.
What are the components of a written skill acquisition plan?
Target skill, procedure used to implement, reinforcement schedule, data collection methods
What is pre-session pairing?
Pair ourselves with reinforcement.
What is a transfer trial?
Transfer stimulus control.
What is a probe trial?
After different SDs are given, present SD for target behavior.
What are the components of a behavior reduction plan?
Operational definition of behavior, proactive strategies (what to do to prevent behavior from occurring), reactive strategies (what to do after the behavior occurs), setting events (context when behavior usually occurs), replacement behavior.
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