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45 terms

AP Biology Ch 52

AP Edition Biology, Eighth Edition
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ecology
scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment
population
group of individuals of the same species living in an area
community
group of populations of different species in an area
ecosystem
community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which the communities interact
landscape (seascape)
mosaic of connected ecosystems
biosphere
global ecosystem (sum of all the planet's ecosystems and landscapes)
biotic factors
living factors that influence a species' distribution (ex: food sources, availability of a mate, territoriality)
abiotic factors
nonliving factors that influence a species' distribution (ex: light, temperature, water)
dispersal
movement of individuals from their area of origin or from centers of high population density
climate
long-term, prevailing weather conditions in a particular area
macroclimate
climate patterns on the global, regional and local level
microclimate
very fine climate patterns (ex: beneath a fallen log)
biomes
major terrestrial (characterized by vegetation type) or aquatic (characterized by physical environment) life zones
photic zone
zone in a body of water where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis
aphotic zone
zone in a body of water where little light penetrates
benthic zone
the bottom of aquatic biomes;
a substrate of sand and organic and inorganic sediments
benthos
collective term for the communities that live in the bottom sediment of aquatic biomes
abyssal zone
zone that lies between 2000m and 6000m below the surface of the ocean
thermocline
narrow layer of abrupt temperature change in a lake that separates warmer upper layers from cooler lower layers
turnover
semiannual mixing of lake water due to changing temperature profiles;
brings oxygenated water from a lake's surface to the bottom and the nutrient-rich water from the bottom to the surface
oligotrophic lakes
nutrient-poor and oxygen-rich lakes
eutrophic lakes
nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor lakes
littoral zone
shallow, well-lit waters close to shore in an aquatic biome;
where rooted and floating aquatic plants are found
limnetic zone
where the water is too deep for rooted aquatic plants;
populated by phytoplankton and cyanobacteria
wetland
aquatic habitat inundated by water at least some of the time and supports plants adapted to water-saturated soil
estuary
transition area between river and sea
intertidal zone
aquatic zone periodically exposed and flooded by the tides
oceanic pelagic zone
aquatic zone of open blue water, constant mixed by wind-driven oceanic currents
coral reefs
formed largely from calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
marine benthic zone
seafloor below the surface waters of the coastal and open water zones
deep-sea hydrothermal vents
support aquatic communities of organisms without sunlight;
the primary producers are chemoautotrophic prokaryotes
disturbance
event that changes a community, removing organisms from it and altering resource availability (ex: storm, fire, human activity)
climograph
plot of the temperature and precipitation of a particular region
ecotone
arrea of intergradation between terrestrail biomes
canopy
upper tree layer in forests
tropical rain forest
layered equatorial forest
high annual temperatures
relatively constant rainfall
tropical dry forest
layered equatorial forest
high annual temperatures
highly seasonal precipitation levels
desert
commonly located 30° north or south of the equator
little precipitation
highly fluctuating temperature
low, widely scattered vegetation
savanna
equatorial grassland
seasonal rainfall
warm annual temperatures
scattered trees and frequent fires
chaparral
highly seasonal precipitation
hot in the summer and cooler in fall, winter, and spring
dominated by shrubs and small trees
high plant diversity
temperate grassland
highly seasonal precipitation
cold winters, hot summers
grasses dominant
periodic droughts and fires
taiga (northern coniferous forest)
largest terrestrial biome
rainfall depends on specific location
long and cold winters, hot summers
cone-bearing trees
temperate broadleaf forest
precipitation during all seasons, esp. summer and winter
cold winters, hot and humid summers
distinct vertical layers
deciduous trees dominant
tundra
covers expansive areas of the arctic
can be found at high mountain altitudes
long and cold winters, short and cool summers
herbaceous vegetation, mosses and grasses
plant growth restricted due to permafrost
permafrost
permanently frozen layer of soil that restricts the growth of plants