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Civil Rights Movement Extra Info 1954 - 1968
Terms in this set (50)
Explain civil rights in the 1950s then explain civil rights in the 1960s.
promoting nonviolence/passing legislation, definitive split in the movement/violent strategies combating nonviolent strategies
(1960s: radical movement not 100% successful, different goals tend to shadow each other)
first president who actually got people to start thinking about civil rights, sympathetic towards the civil rights movement
hesitant when it comes to civil rights for one reason: another country is calling us out on our racial discrimination and that is Soviet Union because they are all about equality, that makes this President start to change his tactics, would not put his support behind a bill (Lynching Bill), did not support an anti-lynching bill
(very hesistant when it comes to civil rights not into civil rights, one reason he gets more interested in civil rights, another country calling us out for the racial discrimination- Russia, Russia is calling us out because they are all about euality, that is why Eisenhower is a little more interested)
initial stance was very in between, now civil rights is a new issue, initial stance was very in between, civil rights is a hot spot, cold war issues that he still has to deal with, says he will get more involved but he gets assassinated but Cuban Missile Crisis
most passionate, wants to help out the common man, push for the laws to get passed, most passionate about civil rights, wants to help out the common man- minoriites, puts in lots of the laws
office in 1968 (last year of the civil rights movement), Nixon is not exactly focused on it-many other issues, comes into the office in 1968---> last year of the civil rights movement, not exactly fighting for civil rights, own problems, civil rights movement ends with Nixon's administration, no real gains for civil rights
African American lady of Montgomery Alabama who refused to give her seat to a white bus rider. defied a southern custom that required blacks to give seats toward the front of the buses to Whites was a civil rights activist
What occurred as a result of Rosa Parks being arrested?
Rosa Parks being arrested, a black community boycotted the cities buses and a boycott lasted more than a year.
How is the response of the community to the Rosa Parks incident a fight for civil rights?
community to the Rosa Parks incident a fight for civil rights because it was able to demonstrate the unity and determination of black residents and inspired African Americans in other places of the United States.
what/who inspired Martin Luther King Jr.?
nonviolent tactics used by Indian nationalist Mahatma Gandhi inspired Martin Luther King Jr..
outlawed segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment and education. Not only did blacks benefit from the act, but also so did women and other victims of discrimination.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
What events brought about the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964?
The events that brought upon the creation of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 were Martin Luther King Jr.'s linkage of black idealism and the different movements.
Why is world war 2 a big reason for the civil rights movement?
so many people fighting, blatant discrimination, fighting to preserve people's freedom around the world (African Americans are wondering why fighting for freedom when they have no freedom in their own country)
What role did World War 2 play in getting people involved in the civil rights movements?
presidents take more of a stand
most important supreme court ruling for a long time
(1954- when the rights started, Kansas: segregation is okay- not legal- not illegal, gray area)
Brown v Board of Ed
In what ways did the Civil Rights movement not only advance the rights of African Americans but other minority groups as well?
The Civil Rights movement did not only advance the rights of African Americans but other minority groups as well by transforming American democracy. It served as model for other group advancements such as women, students, Chicanos, gays and lesbians, the elderly, and a multitude of other groups. The continuing controversies regarding affirmative action programs were more fundamental, debates about the boundaries of individual freedom was occurring and so was the role of government.
(amendments supposed to protect African Americans--all of these amendments are ignored/finding loopsholes--white person keepin g these laws)
Explain how the amendments were during the civil rights movement.
many people are finding loopholes, person that is creating the laws is a white person, easy in certain parts of the country to find loopholes
What is the supreme court ruling that calls the amendments back, pulls the country back 70 years and is very very very bad?
Plessy v. Ferguson
US Supreme Court Case that made segregation legal in the United States, established the principle of "separate but equal"
(never equal, White facilities are always renovated, Black facilities nobody cares, Everytime someone questions "separate but equal" , open the doors for certain places to be segregated ( bathrooms, water) , not equal at any time, even minorities like African Americans)
Plessy v. Ferguson
(tale end of the 19th century, finding little loopholes, laws to end segregation were always ignored)
makes it okay to discriminate as long as you are discriminating equally, clearly meant to subjugate a certain group of people- Black People, voting rights/literary test, dominate the Southern States, some goes up to the North, southern states using these laws, Segregation: normal way of life until the 1950s, not just in the South but all over
Jim Crow Laws
(around for 70 years)
affected the opportunities available to women, nonblack minorities, disabled individuals, and other victims of discrimination. The Voting Right Acts of 1965 increased the number of southern blacks able to register to vote. It was also the last major racial protest of the '60s to receive substantial white support.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Briefly explain the views of Malcolm X and how they differed from that of Martin Luther King Jr.
Malcolm X thought that it would be best if Blacks were separate and self-governing. King saw the goal as full integration for black people into American society. Malcolm X called his ideas, "Black Nationalism" and they were separated into three categories: political philosophy, economic philosophy, and social philosophy. MLK preferred peaceful tactics whereas Malcolm X utilized paramilitary force in order to defend the black from whites. MLK wanted to legally solve the issue with negotiations whereas Malcolm X wanted to fight fire with fire to achieve the goals of equality.
what led to a decline in protest activity after the 1960's?
Government repression, assassinations of Malcolm X and MLK and the intense fighting with the black militant community caused a decline in protest activity after the 1960's.
Explain the beliefs of the Black Panther Party in regards to the Civil Rights Movement
The Black Panther Party reflected the radicalism and belief in racial separatism that increasingly characterized SNCC during the last few years of the 1960s. The California based Black Panther Party was formed in 1966 by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale. This party was based on ideas such as black nationalism and a staunch belief in the necessity of violence and armed self-defense in order to obtain freedom from white oppression. Most of the party's ideas were strongly associated with those of Malcolm X.
What is the lasting legacy of the Civil Rights movement on America?
The lasting legacy of the Civil Rights movement on America was the struggles of these citizens, overt forms of racial discrimination, and government-supported segregation of public facilities, and segregation lasted in the northern as well as southern public school systems and in other areas of American society. Black candidates could be elected into political office and they could now be recruited into universities. Although the civil rights movement had accomplished a lot, racial discrimination is still prevalent in American society. Not only did the Civil Rights movement help African Americans, but also it served as model for other minorities.
does make segregation legal but in a way that it says you can separate the races, you just need to make sure they have equal say,
"Separate but Equal"
Plessy v. Ferguson
(deals with Jim Crow laws- 1896, finds little loopholes)
other types of laws to be passed in south, makes it okay to discriminate as long as you are discriminating equally, clearly meant to subjected a certain group of people- black population, around for 70 years, mostly southern states using these laws, segregation is a normal part of life, South requires segregation, illegal to have a school where black and white students going to school, no integration, black population-restrictions put on voting rights, open the doors for minorities not being allowed in the same place as Whites
Jim Crow Laws
(good place to start is children--> if you teach no difference then racism is learned)
What was the most important civil rights Supreme Court ruling for many years?
Brown v. BOE
Explain Brown v. BOE
1954 was the start of the movement, this is where people are trying to attack the whole segregation in schools, happening in Kansas, segregation is not legal/legal- grey area, African American girl is suing to attend the school of her choice, her school is too far, separate but equal doctrine, says that she is at a disadvantage
What did Brown v. BOE outlaw?
going to say that Plessy v. Ferguson is unconstitutional as it goes against the 14th amendment, equal protection under the law for everyone, no more segregation, any segregation in school system illegal,
Why is Brown v. BOE significant?
a lot of places- most of the poor schools are black schools-disavdantage bc not getting the best educated, teachers not being made an equal amount, should go to a school based on the students lots of states that do not adhere, see a rise in the education level, racist white people wont like
T or F: MLK was originally going to give a different speech
MLK was also attacked for being a communist since he was fighting for equality
group that set up daycare centers, patrolled the community to make sure people were safe as the this group continued much more radical people entered, negative image comes from, others are willing to go head to head with the FBI
(we shall overcome--> we shall overrule), black outfits
Who argued and won the Brown v. BOE?
(32 gases before brown v. BOE, won 29 of those cases, knows what he is doing, so groundbreaking and affects the entire nation, allows him to be on the supreme court later on, 1967-1991, also apart of the NAACP)
first place to be integrated, Little Rock, Arkansas, nine HS students are chosen to be integrated to an all white school
(NAACP handpicked nine students- are able to handle verbal abuse, have to pick the strong ones, students that are harassing them, also have parents that are harassing them the entire time, entire town that is involved. Eisenhower- against sending someone in, finds it ncessary to send federal marshalls to get these students into the school, national guard to "keep the peace", right to attend school, made national news, federal troops brown v. board of education will be put into place of those nine, only about one ended up graduating-- bc governor of arkansas ended up shutting down schools because too chaotic trying to integrate)
Little Rock Nine
army veteran, wants to go to University of Mississippi- Ole Miss, has all the qualifications, however in the admission office they say they have no room and should not attend. This man received an acceptance letter and met all the qualifications to go the school, Kennedy has to send in federal troops so that Meredith can enter the school
former governor of Alabama, says that segregation will last, tries to block Black people from entering the University of Alabama, Kennedy has to send federal marshals in and it took a while for people to accept Brown v. Board of Education
(schools on their way to becoming unsegregated)
What was the kick start of the Civil Rights Movement
transportation, Rosa Parks (her saying no was staged, not the first person to deny a white person their seat, does not make national news bc that was not made to be the movement NAACP was very involved, Rosa Parks attended many meetings, couple girls that would be selected, PLANNED,make people make change happen)
How did the Civil Rights Movement end?
assassination of MLK, but movement is always continuing
still applies in 2016, gets away with this segregation, finds loopholes
de facto segregation
African Americans are refusing to use any sort of transportation in Montgomery, spreads to other places, however Montgomery segregations will be losing money, causing an economic downfall
Montgomery Bus Boycott
face of civil rights movement, he is on top because he is planning the boycott, Georgia- Southern background, promoting nonviolence-significant,not going to feel sympathetic for a movement using violent tactics, gets his inspiration by Gandhi, Jesus, Henry David Thoreou (wrote civil disobedience), minister, arrested 30 times because of civil disobedience, never say in jail. CIA was trying to phone tap him,
big thing; powerful speaker, draws people in, "I have a dream"--> originally that was not going to be the speech some people do not like MLK because infidelity with his wife
What was one thing about the civil rights movement?
women were not the face, sexism
T or F: Protests promoted nonviolence
Selma, March on Washington, lots of media attention, attracts lots of people
more dangerous getting a bus, going throughout the south, trying to show people how racially tense issues were in the South, mobs would attack these buses- fireballs, lots of people died, tried to spread the word about coming together, trying to get people to vote, got so bad, Robert KENNEDY had to send in the federal marshes
students from local colleges who would purposely sit at a lunch table, would not be served, refused to leave, very common, Greensboro Sit In
(no matter how much you get attacked- u do not engage with your enemey- you just stand there, all about gaining national attention, not only one organization that fought for civil rights-multiple, NAACP)
What is MLK's organization that is fighting for peace/equal rights?
fighting for equality on economic level
Congress for Racial Equality
students, coming together to fight for equal rights, very diverse movement
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
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