87 terms

Anatomy IV; nervous & endocrine system

Negative feedback system
regulates the amount of hormones secreted by the endocrine gland by stimulating the opposite response
Hormonal control system
What system uses hormones to stimulate or inhibit the release of other hormones?
What is a synonym for the hormone epinephrine?
What gland is both endocrine and exocrine?
What is known as the "master gland?"
anterior pituitary
what stores hormones produced by the hypothalamus?
Which gland helps to regulate carbohydrate metabolism?
Which gland contains the corpus luteum?
Which gland contains alpha and beta cells?
anterior pituitary
Which gland secretes the hormone prolactin?
Which gland secretes the hormone glucagon?
Which gland secretes the hormone melatonin?
Adrenal cortex
Which gland secretes the hormone aldosterone?
anterior pituitary
Which gland secretes adrenocorticotropic hormone?
Which gland secretes the hormone insulin?
Which gland secretes the hormones thyroxin & triiodothyronine?
posterior pituitary
Which gland "secretes" the hormone oxytocin
Adrenal cortex
Which gland secretes the hormone cortisol?
Which gland is involved with the circadian rhythm?
What carries the electrical signal away from the cell body of a neuron?
What cell wraps around the neurons of the peripheral nervous system to form a myelin sheath?
synaptic vesicles
Where are neurotransmitters stored?
What element of the CNS is responsible for the smooth and coordinated movement of skeletal muscle?
gray matter
Where in the CNS does synapses primarily occur?
cerobrospinal fluid
fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal fluid
what fluid acts as a shock absorber around the spinal cord and brain?
autonomic nervous sytstem
part of the PNS that is involuntary, supplying impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands
parasympathetic nervous system
part of the ANS that conserves body resources and activates the relaxation response
What transmits impulses away from teh cell body?
What nerves carry messages from the brain or spinal cord; efferent
sympathetic nervous system
part of the ANS involved with spending body resources and preparing the body for emergency situations
an instantaneous, automatic response to a stimulus originating from either inside or oustside the body.
receptors that detect cold and heat
receptors for detecting pain
receptors activated by the chemical stimuli
nerves that carry impulses from nerve receptors to the brain or spinal cord; afferent
a collective term for a vast range of chemicals that facilitate, arouse, or inhibit the transmission of nerve impulses
receptors responding to mechanical stimuli
nerve fiber node
the "gap" between neuroglial cells as they wrap around a neuron
intervertebral foramen
spinal nerves exit the vertebral canal through which anatomical space?
somatic nervous system
Which division of the PNS regulates skeletal muscle?
sympathetic nervous system
The fight or flight response is a function of the?
periosteal dura
which layer of the dura mater, or pachymenix, lies on the inside surface of the cranium or skull?
tentorium cerebelli
what seperates the cerebrum from the cerebellum?
parasympathetic nervous system
what is the divison of the autonomic nervous system that is involved with the relaxation response?
What is the fat and protein insulation substance around some axons that assists conduction?
central nervous system
What division of the nervous system contains the brain, spinal cord, CSF, and meninges?
What is an instantaneous, involuntary response to a stimulus?
What part of the brain governs muscle tone, coordination, balance, fine and gross motor movements?
What is the term used to describe a network of intersecting nerves in the PNS?
golgi tendon organs
What are the tendon reflex receptors called that respond by inhibiting muscle contractions?
muscle spindles
What is the stretch reflex receptor called that responds by contracting the muscle?
What is the general term for receptors responding to changes in muscle length, tension, and body position?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
The autonomic nervous system is divided into which of the following?
cerebrum, diencephalon, cerebellum, brain stem
What are the 4 major regions of the brain?
What is the largest region of the brain?
Which sensory receptors are located in the retina?
What are the regions of the cerebrum called?
Which cell type is part of the blood-brain barrier?
motor neuron
Any impulse which travels away from the CNS to activate or inhibit a muscle or gland is called what?
Sensory nerves that carry impulses from nerve receptors to the brain or spinal cord are called what?
What are the receptors called that respond to stimuli originating from within the body regarding the function of the internal organs, such as digestion, excretion, and blood pressure, and are located in the viscera?
occipital lobe
Which cerebral lobe contains a center for visual input?
parietal lobe
Which cerebral lobe governs somatosensory input?
frontal lobe
which cerebral lobe regulates motor output, cognition, and speech production?
temporal lobe
Which cerebral lobe houses auditory and olfactory areas, as well as Wernicke's area?
spinal cord
What exits the skull through the foramen magnum?
What is the term used to describe changes in the internal or external environment?
What is the term used to describe when the inside of the neural membrane bears a negative charge and the outside of the neural membrane bears a positive charge?
neurons and glia cells
What are the 2 types of cells found in the nervous system?
What type of neuron carries impulses to the brain and spinal cord?
schwann cells
cells that produce myelin for cells outside the brain and spinal cord are what?
The regulation of the sleep cycle, water balance, and the production of ADH occurs in the?
The coordination of muscle movement and the maintenance of equilibrium occurs in the?
corpus callosum
The right and left sides of the cerebrum are connected by the?
dura mater
The tough outer layer of meninges is called what?
the midbrain, hypothalamus and medulla oblongata are all apart of what?
skeletal muscles
The somatic nervous system controls actions of what?
true/false: A nerve cell and a neuron are the same thing.
What is a group of nerve cell bodies located in the PNS called?
true/false: All interneurons are found in the CNS.
dura mater
The outermost and toughest of the meninges is called what?
spinal nerves
31 pairs of these make up part of the PNS
arachnoid mater
The "spider web" -like part of meninges
sympathetic nervous system
Regulates the "fight or flight" response
pia mater
The thin innermost layer of the meninges
A neurotransmitter that is released from the postganglionic axons of the PNS