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Muscles: Origin, Insertion, and Action

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Pectoralis Major
Origin: Clavicle, sternum, cartilages of ribs 1-7 Insertion: Crest of greater tubercle of humerus Action: flexes, adducts, and medially rotates arm
Deltoid
Origin: Clavicle, acromion process, spine of scapula Insertion: Deltoid tuberosity of the humerus Action: Abducts arm; flexes, extends, medially, and laterally rotates arm
Teres Major
Origin: Inferior angle of scapula Insertion: Crest of lesser tubercle of humerus Action: Extends, adducts, and medially rotates arm
Subscapularis
Origin: Subscapular fossa Insertion: Lesser tubercle of humerus Action: Medially rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint
Latissimus Dorsi
Origin: T7-12, L1-5, S1-5, Crest of ilium, ribs 10-12 Insertion: Intertubercular groove of humerus Action: Extends, adducts, and medially raises arm; draws shoulder inferiorly.
Supraspinatus
Origin: Suprapinous Fossa Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Abducts arm, helps stabilize shoulder joint
Infraspinatus
Origin: Infraspinous Fossa Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Laterally rotates arm, stabilizes shoulder joint
Teres Minor
Origin: Lateral border of scapula Insertion: Greater tubercle of humerus Action: Laterally rotates and adducts arm, stabilizes shoulder joint
Biceps Brachii
Origin: Long head; superior margin of glenoid fossa Short Head; Coracoid process of scapula Insertion: Radial Tuberosity Action: Flexes arm, flexes forearm, supinates hand
Brachialis
Origin: Anterior, distal surface of humerus Insertion: coronoid process of ulna Action: Flexes forearm
Triceps Brachii
Origin: Infraglenoid tuberosity of scapula, lateral and posterior surface of humerus Insertion: Olecranon process, tuberosity of ulna Action: Extends and adducts arm, extends forearm
Brachioradialis
Origin: Lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus Insertion: styloid process of radius Action: Flexes forearm
Gracillis
Origin: Symphysis Pubis Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Adducts thigh, flexes leg
Tensor fasciae latae
Origin: iliac crest, anterior iliac surface Insertion: iliotibial band of fasciae latae Action: Flexes, abducts, and medially rotates thigh
Gluteus Maximus
Origin: Outer iliac blade, iliac crest, sacrum, coccyx Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity of femur, iliotibial band of fasciae latae Action: Extends and laterally rotates thigh, braces knee
Gluteus Medius
Origin: Outer iliac blade Insertion: Greater trochanter of femur Action: Abducts and medially rotates thigh
Adductor Magnus
Origin: Pubis, ischium Insertion: Gluteal tuberosity, linea aspera, adductor tubercle of distal femur Action: Adducts, flexes, extends and laterally rotates thigh
Sartorius
Origin: Anterior superior iliac spine Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Flexes and laterally rotates thigh, flexes leg
Rectus Femoris
Origin: Anterior inferior iliac spine, margin of acetabulum Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Flexes thigh, extends leg
Vastus Lateralis
Origin: Greater trochanter of femur, linea aspera of femur Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg
Vastus medialis
Origin: Linea aspera, medial side Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg
Vastus Intermedius
Origin: Proximal, anterior femur Insertion: Tibial tuberosity by patellar tendon Action: Extends Leg
Biceps Femoris
Origin: Ischial tuberosity, Linea aspera Insertion: Head of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg
Semitendinosus
Origin: Ischial Tuberosity Insertion: Proximal, medial tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg
Semimembranosus
Origin: Ischial tuberosity Insertion: Medial condyle of tibia Action: Extends thigh, flexes leg
Tibialis anterior
Origin: Lateral condyle and proximal tibia Insertion: First metatarsal and first cuneiform Action: Dorsiflexes and inverts foot
Gastrocnemius
Origin: Condyles of femur Insertion: Calcaneus by calcaneal tendon Action: Flexes leg, plantar flexes foot
Soleus
Origin:Posterior, proximal tibia and fibula Insertion: Calcaneus by calcaneal tendon Action: Plantar flexes foot
Peroneus longus
Origin: Head and shaft of fibula, lateral condyle of tibia Insertion: First metatarsal, first cuneiform Action: Plantar flexes and everts foot
Extensor digitorum longus
Origin: Lateral COndyle of tibia, shaft of fibula Insertion: Middle of distal phalanges of second through fifth digits Action: Extends toes, dorsiflexes foot
Pectoralis minor
Origin: Insertion: Action:
External intercostal
Origin: Inferior border of a rib Insertion: Superior border of rib below Action: Elevates ribs (increases volume in thorax)
Internal intercostals
Origin: Inferior border of a rib Insertion: Superior border of rib below Action: Depresses ribs (decreases volume in thorax)
Tapezius
Origin: Posterior occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, C7-T12 Insertion: Clavicle, Acromion process, and spine of scapula Action: Extends and abducts head, rotates and adducts scapula, fixes scapula
Rhomboid major
Origin: Spines of T2-5 Insertion: Lower one-third of vertebral border of scapula Action: adducts scapula (draws scapulae together)
Rhomboid minor
Origin: Ligamentum nuchae, Spines C7-T1 Insertion: Vertebral border of scapula at scapular spine Action: Adducts scapula (draws scapulae together)
Frontalis
Origin: Galea aponeurotica Insertion: Skin superior to orbit Action: Raises eyebrows, draws scalp anteriorly
Orbicularis oris
Origin: Fascia of facial muscles near mouth Insertion: Skin of lips Action: Closes lips
Orbicularis oculi
Origin: Frontal and maxilla on medial margin of orbit Insertion: Skin of eyelid Action: Closes eyelid
Masseter
Origin: Zygomatic arch Insertion: Angle and ramus of mandible Action: Closes mandible
Temporalis
Origin: Temporal fossa Insertion: coronoid process and ramus of mandible Action: Closes mandible
Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Sternum, clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal Action: Abducts, rotates, and flexes head
Serratus Anterior
Origin: Ribs 1-8 Insertion: Vertebral border and inferior angle of scapula Action: Abducts scapula (moves scapula away from spinal column)
Rectus Abdominis
Origin: Crest of pubis, symphysis pubis Insertion: Cartilages of ribs 5-7, xiphoid process Action: Flexes vertebral column, compresses abdominal wall
External oblique
Origin: Ribs 5-12 Insertion: Linea alba, iliac crest, pubis Action: Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk
Internal oblique
Origin: Inguinal ligament, iliac crest Insertion: Linea alba, ribs 10-12 Action: Compresses abdominal wall, laterally rotates trunk
Transverse abdominus
Origin: Insertion: Action: