Chapter 6 Section 2 The Home Front

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George Creel
head of the Committee on Public Information 1917 which was allegedly formed to combat wartime rumors by providing authoritative info. It served as propaganda agency proclaiming the govn'ts version of reality and discrediting those who questioned that version.
Committee on Public Information
It was headed by George Creel. The purpose of this committee was to mobilize people's minds for war, both in America and abroad. Tried to get the entire U.S. public to support U.S. involvement in WWI. Creel's organization, employed some 150,000 workers at home and oversees. He proved that words were indeed weapons.
Espionage Act
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Sedition Act
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens' rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.
Bernard Baruch
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
War Industries Board
Agency established during WWI to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries.
Propaganda
government published posters, etc to promote the idea that there was unanimous support for the war
Great Migration
movement of over 300,000 African American from the rural south into Northern cities between 1914 and 1920
women
had to take jobs normally filled by men
Food Administration
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
Herbert Hoover
He was the head of the Food Administration during World War I. He became the Secretary of Commerce and encouraged businesses to regulate themselves. Hoover was a Republican known for his integrity who won the election of of 1928. He had to deal with the Great Crash of 1929, which caused the Great Depression. He signed the Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act. His belief in "rugged individualism" kept him from giving people direct relief during the Great Depression.
19th amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Fuel Administration
(WW) , Harry Garfield, Like the Food Administration, the Fuel Administration encouraged Americans to save fuel with "heatless Mondays" and "gasless Sundays" The actions helped create a sum of $21 billion to pay for the war.
Liberty bonds/loans
Special war bonds sold by the government to support the Allied cause during World War I.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Schenck v. US
under the Espionage Act of 1917, a person can not use the first ammendment as protection when speaking against the US government and military. "Clear and present danger"
Conscientious objectors
opposed fighting in the war on moral or religious grounds
24 million
how many Americans ended up registering for the draft?
2.8 million
Of the 24 million who signed up, how many people actually were drafted into army forces?
Council of National Defense
council that created new federal administrative agencies to oversee different phases of war effort; regulated food production, coal and petroleum distribution, and railway use
Defender
African American newspaper that encouraged the Great Migration
Mexicans
As African Americans moved North, this ethnic group also immigrated into the US, where they set up ranches in the West
barrio
aka Hispanic neighborhood (in LA or California)
Army Corps of Nurses
nurse program many women joined to aid the injured soldiers
German and Irish
What two ethnic groups seemed to oppose the Allies ideas and in turn were discriminated against?