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Ap European History Chapter 13

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James I
the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1625 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625; he was the son of Mary Queen of Scots and he succeeded Elizabeth I; he alienated the British Parliament by claiming the divine right of kings (1566-1625)
A Trew Law of Free Monarchies
book written by James I of England in which he strongly advocated the divine right of kings - he believed that he should rule with a minimum of consultation beyond his own royal court
Impositions
taxes passed by James I based on past customs duties known as tonnage and poundage
Tonnage and poundage
These were taxes on transactions, like today's sales taxes, levied to raise money without calling Parliament.
Millenary Petition
a statement of Puritan grievances given to James I by the Puritans in England; he reponded by stating that he would not give into the demeands of the Puritans, just as Elizabeth hadn't, so as not to further the strife in the Church of England
King James Bible
One positive outcome from the meeting between James I and the Puritans at Hampton Court, this english translation of the bible was commissioned by King James
Book of Sports
1618 order by James I of England which permitted games on Sunday for people who attended the Church of England services; this upset the Puritans, who believed quite the contrary was appropriate; rescinded after many clergy refused to read this order from the pulpit
Hampton Court Conference
A meeting between King James and Puritan leaders. James I refused to acknowledge any of their grievances, so this meeting was largely fruitless.
Duke of Buckingham
James I's secret lover. His closeness to James I made many of the members of his court upset. He encouraged James to enforce impositions
Charles I
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
Petition of Right
Document prepared by Parliament and signed by King Charles I of England in 1628; challenged the idea of the divine right of kings and declared that even the monarch was subject to the laws of the land
Arminians
a group within the Church of England who rejected Puritanism and the Calvinist doctrine of predestination in favor of elaborate ceremony and Episcopalianism; supported by Charles I
Thomas Wentworth
Charles I's most trusted adviser, who later became the earl of Stafford. He favored absolutism, and imposed the "Through" policy.
Thorough
A policy encouraged by Thomas Wentworth that supported absolutism. It did so by levying extraparliamentary taxes.
Ship Money
A tax imposed during wartime on coastal cities to fund a navy in return for naval protection. Charles I levied this tax during a time of peace to make money, and he also extended it to inland provinces.
William Laud
Archbishop of Canterbury under Charles I in England. He tried to force the Scottish to use the English Book of Common Prayer. He was later executed by Parliament during the English Civil War.
John Pym
A Parliamentary leader of the opposition to the throne. He led Parliament in refusing to give funds to the king until he gave into their grievances.
Short Parliament
Convened to raise money to fight the Scots when they rebelled. It was dissolved when Pym demanded Charles redress political and religious grievances
Long Parliament
(1640-1648) desperate for money after Scottish invasion of northern England-Charles finally agreed to demands by Parliament: Parliament could not be dissolved w/o its own consent; had to meet a min. of once every 3 years; ship money abolished; leaders of persecution of Puritans to be tried and executed; Star Chamber abolished; common law courts supreme to king's courts; refused funds to raise army to defeat Irish revolt-Puritans came to represent majority in Parliament
Grand Remonstrance
A list of grievances of the throne given to Charles I by the Long Parliament.
Militia Ordinance
When Charles I tries to take control of Parliament with military force, hoping the divisions were deep enough to support his actions, Parliament escaped and passed this, allowing them to raise a standing army against him.
Cavaliers
Charles I's private forces that remained loyal to him throughout the English Civil War
Roundheads
Parliament's forces that waged war against Charles I and his Cavaliers.
Solemn League and Covenant
An alliance forged between the Roundheads and the Scots, under the condition that the Scottish Presbyterian system would be adopted by the Church of England after the Civil War.
Oliver Cromwell
Leader of the New Model Army in the English Civil War, where he led the Roundheads to victory against the Cavaliers. He became Lord Protector of Great Britain
Battle of Marston Moor
A major Scottish/Parliamentary victory against the Royalists in 1644.
New Model Army
The disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
Colonel Thomas Pride
An officer of Oliver Cromwell, who was responsible for Pride's Purge.
Pride's Purge
Colonel Thomas Pride kept royalist members of Parliament from taking there seats, creating a Rump Parliament of 50 antimonarch members. Oliver Cromwell used this Parliament to further his own agenda.
Lord Protector
The title Cromwell took for himself after failing several times to establish a constitutional monarchy.
Charles II
The king of the restoration of the monarchy. HE was a closet Catholic who was secretly trying to reestablish Catholicism in England.
Clarendon Code
series of laws by Parliament that excluded Roman Catholics and Presbyterians from religious and political life
Book of Common Prayer and the Thirty Nine Articles
Two Anglican doctrines that Parliament strictly imposes to keep Charles II and his Catholicism quiet.
Navigation Acts
A series of laws that regulated trade in the English colonies strictly between them and the mother country. The colonists hated this because they could get better prices elsewhere.
Treaty of Dover
In 1670, Charles II and Louis XIV had a secret meeting and allied against the Dutch, as long as Charles promised to convert England to Catholicism when conditions permitted.
Declaration of Indulgence 1672
Charles II's attempt at extending protection to "Protestant nonconformists" i.e. Catholics.
Test Act
Parliament passed this in response to Charles II's declaration of indulgences; required all military members to swear an oath against transubstantiation.
Titus Oates
made up stories that Charles II's wife was plotting against him because he was a true Anglican and was having an affair with his brother James. He took his accusations to court and caused much hysteria.
Popish Plot
hysteria over the belief that Charles II's wife was plotting to kill him and put his brother, James, an open Catholic, on the throne
James II
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
Declaration of Indulgence 1687
James II's attempt at total religious freedom in England. Not passed because he was deposed after the Glorious Revolution soon afterwards.
Tories
Members of Parliament loyal to the throne
Whigs
Members of Parliament who believed in a constitutional monarchy system.
Glorious Revolution
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II was removed from his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange. This was extermely popular and sanctioned by almost all of Parliament.
William and Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Bill of Rights
The beginning of constitutional monarchy in England. It gave parliament the power to convene and dismiss themselves, and subjected the King to the law.
Toleration Act
allowed non Catholics places of worship and public rights throughout all of England.
Act of Settlement
provided that the English crown would go to the German Hanovers if none of Queen Anne's children survived
George I of Hanover
A German prince from Hanover who became King of England thanks to the Act of Settlement.
Henry IV
Brilliant politique king of France who brought the religious wars to a close. He passed the Edict of Nantes, which helped bring tranquility to the state. He purified the Catholic League by making France a Catholic country that tolerated Huguenots, although he was Protestant.
Duke of Sully
The finance minister of Henry IV. The two established government monopolies, which provided for a mercantilist system.
Intendants
Royal civil servants who subjected parlements and other privileged groups to stricter supervision. They prevented abuses from the sale of royal offices.
Corvee
A labor tax that created a national force of drafted workers to improve roads and conditions of internal travel.
Louis XIII
Successor of Henry IV. Relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu.
Marie de Medicis
Regent of Louis XIII. Signed the Treaty of Fontainebleau. Appointed Cardinal Richelieu to assist her son.
Treaty of Fountainebleau
Signed by Marie de Medicis. A mutual defense pact with Spain. Arranged for the marriage of Louis XIII to the Spanish Infanta.
Cardinal Richelieu
Adviser to Louis XIII. He encouraged the king to adopt absolutist policies. Laid the foundations for the political acendancy of the French monarchy.
Treaty of Westphalia
This treaty brought all hostilities within the Holy Roman Empire to an end. Rescinded Ferdinand's Edict of Restitution.
Treaty of the Pyrenees
A humiliating treaty forced on Spain, making France Europe's dominant power.
Peace of Alais
Shortened the Edict of Nantes by denying Protestants the right to maintain garrisoned cities, separate political organizations, and independent law courts.
Raison d' etat
"Reason of state." Richelieu indoctrinated the French people in the meaning of this.
Louis XIV
French king how established a powerful centralized monarchy. Established the prototype of absolutism.
Cardinal Mazarin
Adviser to Louis XIV. Encouraged absolutism.
Fronde
A series of widespread rebellions in response to the policies of Cardinal Mazarin. Resistance to France's transition to an absolute monarchy.
Divine Right
The belief that a king's word was law.
Bishop Jacques-Benigne' Bousset
A political theorist and an ardent supporter of absolutism. Coined the "divine right of kings."
L'etat, ce'st moi
The alleged declaration of Louis XIV regarding divine right. "I am the state."
Versailles
The location of the palace court. Became the residence of Louis XIV.
Jansenists
Led by Cornelius Jansen, this Roman Catholic group formed in opposition to the political influence of the Jesuits.
Blaise Pascal
He published "Provincial Letters" in defense of Jansenism.
Ad Sacram Sedem
Louis XIV permitted this to be enforced in France, thus banning Jansenism.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Controller general of finances and a brilliant adviser to Louis XIV. Created a economic base for Louis XIV to finance his wars.
Taille
A direct tax on the peasantry and a major source of royal income. Increased by Colbert.
Mercantilism
An economic system which exploits colonies and territories by encouraging exportation of goods to the mother country.
Marquis de Louvois
The war minister to Louis XIV. A superior military tactician. Instituted good salaries and improved the discipline of the French army.
Sebastien Vauban
A skilled military engineer and adviser to Louis XIV. He perfected the arts of fortifying and besieging towns.
War of Devolution
A war between Spain and France over a claim to the Spanish Belgian provinces.
Triple Alliance
England, Sweden, and the United Provinces of Holland formed this to combat France.
Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle
Under this treaty, Louis XIV gained control of certain towns bordering the Spanish Netherlands.
Invasion of the Netherlands
Without English support the Triple Alliance crumbled, leading Louis to seek revenge. He launched this operation for a second time.
Peace of Nijmwegen
Ended the hostilities of the second invasion of the Netherlands. There were minor territorial adjustments. Only the United Netherlands maintained all of its territory.
Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
As part of his final stage of his persecution of French Huguenots, Louis XIV did this. As a result, Protestant churches and schools were closed,
League of Augsburg
After France conquered Stasbourg, England, Spain, Sweden, the United Provinces, and the electorates of Bavaria, Saxony, and the Palatinate formed this to oppose France.
Nine Years' War
A war between France and the League of Augsburg.
King William's War
A war between France and England in North America. Fought during the same period as the Nine Years' War.
Peace of Ryswick
This treaty secured Holland's borders and thwarted Louis's expansion into Germany.
War of Spanish Succession
War caused by claims to the Spanish throne by Louis XIV and Leopold of Austria.
Charles II
Last Habsburg king of Spain. Left his entire inheritance to Louis's grandson, Philip V.
Philip of Anjou/Philip V
The grandson of Louis XIV. Charles II gave him his entire inheritance. First Bourbon king of Spain.
Grand Alliance
England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire formed this to oppose France's expansion.
Treaty of Utrecht
An armistice between France and England. Concluded hostilities with Holland.
Treaty of Rastadt
Treaty that confirmed Philip V as king of Spain. Gave Gibraltar to England, making it a Mediterranean power. Won Louis's recognition of the right of the House of Hanover to accede to the English throne.