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final exam social studies
Terms in this set (70)
What is the difference between a primary and secondary source? What are the advantages and disadvantages of both?
A primary source is something/someone that has a direct connection to an event, a secondary source has a secondary connection: secondary you can get different points of view primary you can get the complete and full truth
3. How do you read a timeline? How do you find the difference between dates on a time line?
A timeline shows sequence of events. It is read like a horizontal
thermometer. There are "positive" numbers and "negative
numbers. (Numbers above 0 and numbers below 0)
Years that dated BCE are like negative numbers below 0. Years that are dated CE are like positive numbers above 0) . To find the years between 2 dates in BCE, subtract. To find years between 2 dates in CE subtract. To find years between 2 dates with one in BCE and one in CE - add the dates together.
What do the labels B.C., B.C.E., A.D. and C.E. mean?
B.C.E- before common era B.C- Before Christ C.E- common era A.D anno domini
What is prehistory? When did it end?
prehistory was before writing was invented and it ended after writing was invented around 3500 B.C
What are the periods of history and the dates/dividing points?
Before 3500 is prehistory. A( in 500 A.D the fall of rome occurred) after 3500 is history. Then between 3500 and 500 A.D is ancient history. Between 500 A.D and 1500 A.D was medieval history. Then came the age of discovery at 1500. From there out is modern history.
When did control of fire and language develop?
Fire and language was during the Paleolithic
What are the characteristics of a hunter-gatherer lifestyle?
you never knew if you would actually get any food and you had to move with the food.
What are cultural universals? List them.
Language government food/shelter/clothing family and society art economy technology religion
How do these cultural universals change into characteristics of civilization?
Shelter -> villages and cities
Society -> social classes
Religion -> complex religion
Government -> organized government
Economy -> specialization and writing
Art -> monumental architecture
Technology continued to become more advanced and complex
A civilization is a society that is more complex with many parts that work
What is the difference between the Paleolithic times and the Neolithic times?
Paleolithic- hunter-gather nomadic stone tools live longer then Neolithic diverse diet huts camps not permeant housing *survival
Neolithic- farming domesticated animals irrigation wars between colonies over resources and land permeant housing
What does it mean that history, by its very nature, is interpretive?
since people have different frame of reference a point of view, everyone sees it differently.
What are the connections between irrigation, surplus and specialization?
Once farmers began to irrigate crops, the farmers began to produce a surplus of crops. Because there was enough food for everyone, not everyone needed to be a farmer. Because there was additional time, some had the time to develop different skills and talents, therefore specializing in different jobs.
. What were the reasons that government developed?
Governments were first developed to help store the food surplus and organize big projects like irrigation systems
What does the saying "geography makes history" mean?
The physical features of a location (mountains, deserts, rivers etc) influenced where people settled and how they lived in that place. Certain features influenced the events that happened, therefore the geography made history.
** Civilizations developed in river valleys because of the features of a flooding river, fertile soil, and rivers available for irrigation when needed
What were the reasons that government developed?
Governments were first developed to help store the food surplus and organize big projects like irrigation systems/
. Where was Mesopotamia located? What is the relationship between Sumer and Mesopotamia?
Mesopotamia was a region "between two rivers" - the Tigris and Euphrates
Rivers. Sumer was an area at the southern end of Mesopotamia, and Sumer
was inside Mesopotamia. Is was in Sumer that the first civilization developed
What is the significance of cuneiform?
Cuneiform was the first writing system in the world. It allowed people to
keep records and communicate in a different way. It has also left us with
exact records so historians could learn more about the civilization.
What is the significance of Hammurabi's code?
This was the first law code written down. Everyone could know the law and
punishments and it was fair. It provided a model for future law codes
What were legacies (inventions) of the Sumerians?
Wheel, plow, sailboat, irrigation, writing system
Why was Egypt called the Gift of the Nile?
The Nile provided almost everything for every part of life for the Egyptian
How did the geography of the region protect ancient Egypt?
The cataracts to the south, the deserts to the west, the delta with its marshes
to the north all were natural barriers that protected Egypt from invasion by
What was mummification and why was it important to the ancient Egyptian civilization?
Mummification was preservation of a dead body. The Egyptians believed that
a body needed to be preserved in order for the spirit to recognize the body.
This allowed the person to enter the afterlife.
. What was the Rosetta Stone and why was it significant?
The Rosetta Stone had something written in three languages - hieroglyphics, another form of Egyptian, and Greek. No one had ever understood hieroglyphics until this time. Once someone translated the Greek, it helped him work backwards and begin to understand and "unlock" the meaning of the hieroglyphics.
What was papyrus and why was it important?
Papyrus was a reed that grew in abundance along the Nile. The Egyptians used if for a type of paper, for rope to make mats, sandals, baskets, etc
Who were these people and why were they important?
King Tutankhamen - the only Pharaoh whose tomb had not been robbed so that archaeologists found original artifacts.
Queen Hatshepsut - the first female Pharaoh; expanded the empire through trade and alliances, not military action.
What allowed Egypt to become so wealthy and prosperous?
The geography creating isolation, and the stability of the government allowed for centuries peace and expansion. Egypt had many natural resources that Egyptians used as well as traded.
In ancient China, what were the natural barriers? What were the positive and negative effects of those barriers?
The Himalayas and Tian Shan Mountains, the Gobi Desert and Taklamakhan Desert and the Pacific Ocean and seas were the natural barriers. They kept out invaders, but they also caused isolation so that a unique culture evolved
Yellow River - Northern China, provides fresh water and fertile soil necessary to support civilization.
Yangtze River - Southern China, provides fresh water and fertile soil necessary to support civilization.
Himalayan Mountain Range - western, south-western China, provides protection from foreign invasion, provides water source and mouth of major rivers, hinders trade
Gobi Desert - northern China, provides protection from foreign invasion, hinders trade
What was the Mandate of Heaven and what was its significance for ancient China?
The Zhou Dynasty believed that the gods chose the king and blessed the country if the ruler was a good ruler. If the ruler proved to be incapable, then the people themselves could say that the ruler did not fulfill the mandate of heaven and he could be replaced.
*If a ruler was virtuous and good, he would have the approval of the gods and the right to rule. Rulers used the mandate of heaven to justify their right to rule
What was the Period of the Warring States? What caused it and what was the effect of this time on ancient China?
The lords of individual states began to fight each other in attempts to gain control of more land, people, and resources. Lords were overthrown, alliances between states formed and dissolved, and life was chaotic and dangerous. During the Warring States period, Chinese intellectuals searched for a solution to the disorder and violence that surrounded them. How could society return to a peaceful and orderly state of being?
What was the Silk Road and why was it important to ancient China?
The Silk Road was a network of trade routes between China, Middle East and eventually parts of Europe.
The Silk Road enabled the exchange of valuable goods as well as cultural ideas. This opened up more markets for Chinese producers and provided goods for the Chinese they wouldn't have access to. Also introduced the Chinese to new thoughts, ideas, and cultures.
How did Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism influence the culture of the ancient Chinese?
Confucianism - developed ideas of respect, honesty, proper behavior and filial piety; it was the basis for the Han dynasty's bureaucratic government
Daoism - provided belief in balance, focus on nature, acceptance
Legalism - for a time, it influenced the law and harsh punishment
*All three were attempts to bring peace and order to the chaotic time of the Period of the Warring States
MORE ON CONFUCIANISM:
According to Confucianism, the family should be guided by the principle of filial piety, or respect for parental authority—the power of parents. For this reason, Confucians often referred to the emperor as ruler-father.
• fathers were the heads of the households and thus the authority figures.
• Ancient Chinese families tended to be large. At least 100 relatives often lived together, including grandparents, aunts and uncles, and cousins.
• The elder generations were held in high esteem and given respect. As a result, they had authority over the younger members of the household.
What were the legacies of ancient China?
Gunpower, kites, silk, tea, rice, compass, acupuncture, civil service exams, porcelain, paper made from wood pulp
What were the natural, physical features of the Greek peninsula? What effects did these features have on the Greek culture and civilization?
Mountains acted as natural barriers - protecting & isolating. Seas also acted as natural barriers and provided opportunity for trade. City-states were very independent from each other due to the mountains & islands. Had to rely on trade and conquest for resources.
In ancient Greek city states, who had political rights?
Citizens - free men, over the age of 18
. What were major differences between Athens and Sparta?
• Government, Athens - direct democracy, citizens were able to participate in government, proposing and voting on laws / Sparta - oligarchy - a few aristocrats had the power
• Education, Athens - boys were educated in reading, writing, math, sports, arts / Sparta - boys were made into soldiers
• Economy, Athens - based on trade and conquest due to location and strong navy / Sparta - based on agriculture and conquest
• Women, Athens - had very few rights, were expected to take care of home and children / Sparta - had more rights, were expected to be fit/strong to take care of property and have healthy children
• Focus of life, Athens - wealth leads to advanced culture, art, philosophy / Sparta - military
Who fought in the Greco-Persian Wars? What was the importance of the following battles? Marathon, Thermopylae, Salamis?
Greeks versus Persians
A. What caused Persia to invade ?
B. Marathon? Why?
C. Who won at Thermopylae? Why?
D.Who won at Salamis? Why
(B,C,D different battles)
A.rebellion of Greek colonies against Persian rulers
Greece - strong leadership used knowledge of geography and wise strategy to defeat Persia despite being outnumbered. Then marched back to Athens to prevent land invasion.
Who fought in the Peloponnesian Wars? What cause it? How did the result affect Greek civilization?
City-states in Greece, especially Sparta, believed Athens had too much power. Sparta eventually won but both city-states never really recovered and Greece was eventually taken over by Macedonia
Who were these people:
Plato- student of socrates:
Homer - writer of ancient epics the Odyssey and Iliad
Socrates - used the Socratic Method - asking a series of questions - to encourage people to think deeper and view beliefs in a different way. Was sentenced to death for corrupting youth.
Plato - student of Socrates - started The Academy and wrote The Republic, describing the ideal state, emphasized people knowing their roles & responsibilities in society.
Aristotle - student of Plato, used syllogism to make assumptions and inferences about truths, questioned which government worked best, later served as a tutor for Alexander the Great
Hippocrates- Father of Modern Medicine; designed the Hippocratic Oath that doctors take
Pythagoras - developed the Pythagorean theorem used in measuring triangles
. Who was Alexander the Great? What were his accomplishments?
Son of Phillip the Second, King of Macedonia, who conquered Greece after Peloponnesian Wars. Alexander's conquests spread Greek ideas, architecture, and culture throughout the lands he conquered in Asia. In turn, ideas and cultures from Asia influenced Greece. This intermingling of Greek and Asian cultures produced a unique civilization called the Hellenistic age, which began around 323 BCE and lasted for around 200 years.
What were the legacies of ancient Greece?
Influence of architecture, democracy, philosophy, science (like simple machines) , and mathematics (like geometry) Theater, epic poetry, literature, historical accounts
What are monsoons? Describe the two different monsoons that affect the Indian subcontinent, and their effects.
A monsoon is a weather pattern in which major wind systems reverse direction depending on the season. In the winter, the monsoon winds blow from Central Asia into the Indian subcontinent. Although the Himalayas block the cold winter air and keep much of the rain from entering the subcontinent, the winds still carry cooler weather to South Asia. During this time, very little rain falls over the majority of the Indian subcontinent.
In the summer, the monsoon winds shift and bring warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean onto the subcontinent. As the moisture mounts, rain clouds form and soak most of the subcontinent. During the summer monsoon, it usually rains daily.
What is a caste? How would a person's caste effect their life?
caste determines who the person can marry, what job the person can take, and what rank the person holds in society.
Where was the city of Rome built? Why?
Along the Tiber River, surrounded by hills giving the civilization opportunity for water/agriculture and protection from invasion.
How was Italy's geography different from Greek geography? How did that make a difference in the two cultures?
Italy had more opportunity for agriculture because the land was more fertile. They could also unite, trade and expand easier because they were not isolated due to islands and mountains. Greece relied on conquest and trade to expand their civilization because their city/states were isolated due to geography of islands and mountains
What were key characteristics of Roman city?
Forums, aqueducts, theaters and places for entertainment, public baths, roads
What did the Romans believe should be provided for city-dwellers?
Water, public bathrooms, jobs, food, entertainment
Why did the Romans build roads? What was the impact of the network of Roads on the city and the empire?
To help with moving troops and to connect the empire. This allowed troops to move quickly and increased expansion through trade and conquest.
What were the two social classes of ancient Rome? What were their characteristics and the relationship between them?
Patricians were the wealthy, nobles. Plebeians were the lower class, poor, and had jobs like artisans, merchants, and soldiers. At first they were forbidden from contact/marriage. Plebeians could not take part in the government. These restrictions decreased over time.
What type of government did ancient Rome develop after the very early monarchy?
How is this type of government different from Athenian democracy?
In the Athenian democracy citizens vote directly on laws/issues but in a representative democracy citizens elect representatives to make laws/decisions for them.
What was the structure of the government?
What were the three groups? What was the purpose of each group? What was a dictator?
Consuls were the head of government and military
Senate advised consuls and made laws
Assembly represented the Plebs in government.
A dictator could rule over the republic for 6 months with total authority/power. This happened when quick efficient action needed to take place like during times of war.
What started the Punic Wars? Who fought in the Punic Wars? Who won and what were the lasting results?
The Punic Wars started due to Roman expansion, their increased need of resources, and desire to control trade in the Mediterranean Sea. Carthage (located in Northern Africa) controlled the Mediterranean Sea, islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia. Rome defeated Carthage in a series of wars, ending the civilization of Carthage and taking control of all land surrounding the Mediterranean Sea.
Who was Julius Caesar? What were his accomplishments? What led up to his murder?
Former consul and governor of Gaul. He conquered all of Gaul, implemented many laws that favored the Plebs and was named Dictator for life. He was murdered because the Senate believed he had too much power and destroyed the Republic
1. Who was Augustus Caesar? What was the Pax Romana?
Formerly Octavian and First emperor of Rome. He defeated Mark Antony in the second Civil War and started the Roman Empire. The Pax Romana was an era of peace and prosperity in Rome that followed the Civil Wars.
1. What were the complaints of the poor in Rome? How did emperors attempt to respond to the protests?
Too much crime - strict laws and curfew. Lack of fresh water - building aqueducts. No jobs - major building projects like roads and aqueducts.
1. Why were there so many slaves in Rome? What was the result of a slave-driven economy?
Slaves were prisoners of war through Roman conquest. The slaves provided cheap jobs but also took jobs of the plebs, increasing poverty
What are the legacies of ancient Rome to us?
Government, laws, Roman numerals, the Roman Languages, architecture, Thumbs up/down,
1. What caused the rise and fall of the Empire?
Cause - Punic Wars and building of military strength, roads. Fall - Increased spending and inflation, Germanic tribes, lack of food.
- a person who works with his hands; a craftsman
a person who could read and write; a record-keeper
more than enough
taking water to crops
passing along something from one generation to the next
government with one ruler
government in which the ruler is considered a god
a government in which ALL members vote and have a voice
a government in which citizens elect representatives to make decisions
members of one family who rule
a government in which several people rule
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