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NSG 422 - MHCH - 05/18

Terms in this set (14)

Emerging infectious diseases
Re-emerging infectious diseases
Health disparities between industrial and nonindustrial countries

Health Promotion
--Global health will improve by sharing knowledge, tools and other resources with people and partners around the world.

Health Protection
--Americans at home and abroad will be protected from health threats through a transnational prevention, detection and response network.

What are examples of "emerging" infectious diseases?
New infections resulting from changes or evolution of existing organisms.
Previously unrecognized infections appearing in areas undergoing ecologic transformation
Answer: HIV/AIDS, Lyme disease, SARS, Ebola, and hepatitis C.

What are examples of "re-emerging" infectious diseases?
Known infections spreading to new geographic areas or populations
Old infections reemerging as a result of antimicrobial resistance in known agents or breakdowns in public health measures
Answer: Cholera, TB, Dengue fever, Diphtheria: Meningococcal meningitis, Yellow fever

What are examples of international health disparities?
Mortality rate of children under five
Percentage of children who are moderately or severely underweight
Access to primary schooling
Risks from armed conflict
Risks from HIV/AIDS
Total health care expenditure
Vaccination programs

Background
Other factors that contribute to the emergence of new health threats are development patterns that create overcrowded cities with poor infrastructures and sanitation, intensive human interactions with highly concentrated populations of animals and birds, substantially increased international trade in food, increasing human movement throughout the world, and alteration of the environment and the climate.


What causes emergence or re-emergence of infectious diseases?
Several factors contribute to the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases, but most can be linked with the increasing number of people living and moving in the world: rapid and intense international travel; overcrowding in cities with poor sanitation; substantially increased international trade in food, mass distribution of food and unhygienic food preparation practices; increased exposure of humans to disease vectors and reservoirs in nature; and alteration of the environment and climatic changes which have a direct impact on the composition and size of the population of insect vectors and animal reservoirs. Other factors include a deteriorating public health infrastructure which is unable to cope with the needs of the population.

CDC: works with partners to prevent and control infectious and chronic diseases; respond to international disasters; and build sustainable global public health capacity by training epidemiologists, laboratory scientists, and public health managers

Nearly all of the 14 - 17 million children and adults who die each year from an infectious disease live in developing countries.1, 2 In these countries, infectious diseases also disable millions of adults, diminishing their quality of life, decreasing productivity, and creating financial hardships for families.1-4

Infectious diseases include:
Lower respiratory infections
Malaria
HIV/AIDS
Diarrheal diseases
Tuberculosis
Neglected diseases
Measles
Polio
Sexually transmitted infections
Emerging diseases