found Hissarlik - with Troy; driven by literacy about Trojan War in the Iliad and the Odyssey
from port of Akrotiri on island of Thera in the Cycladic Islands; Akrotini was destroyed by a volcano and rediscovered in 1967
Thera, palace complexes, epiphanic, marble
Cycladic Islands: Remains left after the volcano of _______ erupted leaving only a ridge
________ ___________ functioned as political, religious and economic hubs
Religion was __________
Abundance of ________ for figurines
Most of these figures have been found lying on graves. They used scrapers and chisels made of obsidian and polishing stones of emery. The introduction of metal tools made it possible for them to carve on a larger scale but maybe b/c the stone fractured so easily they limited themselves to simplified forms; This figure is almost flat and the human body is rendered in a stylized manner generally one notices the triangular shape that dominates the head and shoulders. The body tapers form shoulders to feet and the triangle is repeated again in the pubis area. The feet are too small to support the figure so most likely it was intended to lie in the grave with the person buried. Most likely with the breasts and pubis emphasized along with the swollen belly these figure were fertility offerings
Seated Harp Player
Cycladic: lyre player from Keros on the left. The male figure is also simplified and reduced mainly to geometric essentials, but careful attention is placed on the elements emphasizing an actual musician. The harpists sits on a high back chair with a splayed back and head tilted as if he is singing. Knees and feet apart for balance and arms holding the instrument. The figure seems to be wedged btw the lyre and the chair. The shape of the instrument and the chair seem to reflect each other. Perhaps they are playing for the deceased in the afterlife. We still see simple lines and geometric shapes but there is also evidence that the artists pays careful attention to the elegance of both the figure and the instrume
on Crete; legend of Minos and the Minotaur; lacked bronze; peak = 1600-1450 BCE; little known of daily life
blocks of stone that have been cut and shaped to fit in a particular place for a particular purpose; Minoans had first use of this
a term used to refer to a goddess who represents motherhood, fertility, creation or embodies the bounty of the Earth; Cult of her flourished on Crete, especially in conjunction with a bull
titled because she looks like a sophisticated Parisian woman with her elegant stance, and full red lips) comes from and uncertain ceremonial scene. She is either a young priestess or goddess. The representation is similar to that of traditional Egyptian frontal positioning with the enlarged side view of the eye, profile view of the face and what direct frontal view of the torso. However the charm and and freshness of the image are undeniably different from that of the Egyptian murals. Most of the Egyptian frescos were painted on dry plaster known as fresco secco. Minoan frescos are done in true or wet fresco painted on wet plaster. True fresco requires the artist to work quickly and spontaneously which beings to give an impressionistic effect. The simple, light, delicate, spontaneous technique subsequently resembles the subject herself.
are associated with water, regenerative power, and protection of the home. This image is intriguing both as a ritual object and as a work of art. She is made of faience ceramic glaze appearing illustrious. She was found with other ceremonial objects in a pit in one of Knossos's store rooms; Most Minoan sculpture in the round is small, represents a mortal attendant not a deity, although the large breasts suggest fertility goddess. Snakes in hands, leopard rests peacefully on her head; this implies power over the animal world. Frontality is reminiscent of the Egyptian and Near Eastern figures but the dress is clearly Minoan. Open bodice, flounced skirt, is seen on Minoan women over and over. Most likely this statuette represents a goddess and is another example of human beings fashioning their gods in their own images.
Scenes of sowing and harvesting are also seen in Egyptian art, but their compositions are much more stiff, static and formulaic. This Minoan composition breaks static trend and bursts with energy and movement, and individualized figures. We see a riotous crowd singing and shouting as they return from the fields. Figures are led by an older man wearing a cloak patterned cloth carrying a staff. Youths who follow are depicting forward movement. Although we mainly see traditional profile and frontal views, one figure is singled out by shaking a rattle with his lungs so inflated with air that his ribs are showing. 1st instance where sculptor shows detail/interest in what skeletal structure of the human figure. This is a study of human anatomy. This is a remarkable composition esp. when considering the small size of the vase. Careful attention is also notes in the facial expression of the figures. All faces show tension and relaxation with in the facial muscles
During Middle Minoan period, Cretan potters made sophisticated shapes using the newly introduced potters wheel. The vessels were decorated in polychromatic style (several colors). These vessels are named for the cave on the slope of Mount Ida where they were first discovered. Light objects on dark background
Many have also been found at Phaistos and Knossos. This particular piece is decorated with repeated patterns and shapes. Many vessels are found decorated with aquatic compositions. The vessels were used for storing honey, wine and grain.
Again we see compositions of sea life. Here the Octopus's tentacles reach out and around the vessel almost as if it is embracing the piece itself. This emphasizes its large elastic volume. Here the potter has mastered the challenge of the relationship between the painting and the shape of the pot.
This pot is from Palaikastro and it differs from the Kamares vessels in choice of color, which is more muted, and this Late Minoan artist reverses the earlier scheme. Here we see dark on light background. This scheme will remain the norm in Greece until c. 530 BC. Then we will see light figures emerge on dark backgrounds.
Rhyton Bull Cup
Ancient Greek ceremonial drinking vessel with a vase usually in the form of a head generally that of an animal, female, or mythological creature. Opening for the vessel is located behind the bull's horns decorative gold leaf radial design on forehead.
formed in relief by beating a metal plate from the back, leaving the impression on the face
On one cup, bulls are being trapped with a cow as the lure. Areas not filled in by humans or animals are filled with landscapes, rocks, trees, clouds. Similar to those of Minoan paintings, like Miniature Ships Fresco see fig. 4-9 Gardner's.
The 2 cups document the admiration that the wealthy Mycenaean patrons had for Minoan art. Both the Minoan and Mycenaean metal smiths were highly skilled.
Both cups are made of 2 plates of gold. The outside plate is worked in reposse style while the inside is left plain to make a smooth surface. Then the plates are fastened together, handles are added (riveted) and some of the details engraved
wax mold covered with clay and plaster, fired, and melted: hollow form-molten metal is poured and cooled-leaves solid metal form that is smoothed and polished
kills himself when Theses forgets to put up a white sail to show that he defeated the minotaur
priest who tried to warn Troy to not take in Trojan horse-he and two kids killed by serpent (Trojans think serpent sent by angry gods - really sent by Greeks)
King of Mycenaean; sacrificed daughter; wife's twin sister is Helen (most beautiful woman alive)
judge in Turkey judging apple contest between Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite; chooses Aphrodite who promises him a beautiful woman (Helen)
This is the outer gateway, left is protected by a natural rock. On the right is a man-made wall. Enemies would have to face this 20 ft wide channel with Mycenaean soldiers above them on both sides of the wall.
Post and Lintel above Lintel is the Corbel Arch which lightens the weight carried by the lintel itself.
The corbel arch or relieving triangle depicts 2 decorative relief carvings of lions or possibly sphinxes.
The heads were separate and have since been lost, but one can still see that the animals are carved in high relief and they are resting their forepaws on a stand that carries a Minoan style column.
The animals are carved w/ vigor filling a triangular space. There is a sense of harmony found with in the dignity, strength and scale of the massive stones and entrance gate.
stone construction using huge, irregular blocks without mortar; characteristic of Bronze Aegean age
In Mycenaean architecture the triangular opening above lintel that serves to lighten the weight to be carried by lintel itself.
post and lintel
a structure consisting of vertical beams (posts) supporting a horizontal beam (lintel)
tholoi (circular shape); cyclopean construction; entrance facade; stone surface incised with geometric bands called chevrons
Treasury of Atrius
beehive tomb of Agamemnon; post and lintel design with relief triangle; no concrete - only stone
Mask of Agamemnon
funerary mask-for spirit; repousse; may not actually be him; More primitive than that of King Tut's funerary mask. However it is the Greeks 1st attempt to render the human face at life size. Not known if the Mycenaean masks were intended to be exact portraits, but different facial features are recorded with care. There is a distinct difference from that of the young faces and the mature ones. This mask is of a mature man indicated by the facial hair., perhaps a king.
Two Women with a Child
Only Mycenean sculpture; IVORY - from elephants in Africa - so TRADE; subtractive
What Period? almond shape eye; very pale; contact with Africa and Asia
Life size painted plaster head of a woman, goddess, or sphinx.. We know the head is female b/c of the white flesh tone. Hair and eyes are painted dark blue., almost black, lips ears and head band are red. Cheeks and chin are decorated w/ a ring of red dots, recalling facial paint or tattoos recorded on Early Cycladic female figures. The large menacing eyes give a scary expression, appropriate for a guardian like figure or sphinx. If not for the dicovery of the remains of this figure, historians might wrongly conclude that life size pieces were not part of the Mycenaen culture. However it is ok to conclude that this kind of Aegean work was rare. And we do not see this kind of monumental sculpture again until after the Dark Ages, when Greek sculptors were exposed to the sculptural tradition of Pharanoic Egypt.
regular rhythm of marching men; only indication of woman's emotions is symbolic gesture of an arm raised to her head
Geometric: 900-700 BCE
Greek Period: geometric or rectangular forms that the artists used to decorate the ceramic vessels of this time
Orientalizing: 700-600 BCE
Greek Period: apparent influence of Egyptian and Near Eastern art on the pottery of this time. This influence was due to the spread of trading contacts as well as travels of the artists themselves
Archaic: 600-480 BCE
Greek Period: "old or old fashioned" stresses a presumed contrast btw the art of this time and the following Classical, which used to be thought of as the most admirable and highly developed-however this view no longer prevails among historians
Greek Period: means Greek-like; produced throughout the eastern Mediterranean world as non-Greek people gradually became infused with Greek culture under Alexander and his successors. The history and art of ancient Greece ends with the fall of Egypt, the last bastion of rule, to the Romans in 31 BCE.
Proto-Geometric: 1050-900 BCE
Greek Pottery: characterized by linear motifs, spirals, diamonds and cross-hatching, rather than the stylized plants, birds, and sea creatures characteristic of Minoan vase painting
this pottery could be categorized as ______________ because linear motifs, spirals, diamonds and cross-hatching
½ horse ½ man figure exemplifies Proto-Geometric style: with its use of geometric forms in painted decoration, and the reduction of human and animal body parts in sculptural works to simple geometric solids like cubes, pyramids, cylinders, and spheres. The figure is unusual, because of its size (more than a foot) and b/c its hollow body was formed like a vase on a potters wheel. The artist added the solid legs and arms and tail to his body and painted on the bold, abstract designs w/ slip, the slip fired to dark brown, standng out against the lighter color of the un-slipped portions of the figure, Centaurs prevalent throughout Greek mythology had both a good and bad side and symbolized the similar dual nature of humans. This figure was found in a cemetery when it was found it had been deliberately broken into two pieces that were buried in adjacent graves. Clearly the object had special significance for the people buried in the graves or their mourners
Earliest is geometric pottery-narrative of funerary rituals for an important person; The figures are also very 2-d all the negative space is filled w/ and M shape known as asterisks. The figures are comprised of triangular frontal torsos, profile arms legs and heads have been attached. Mourners show their grief by tearing their hair. We begin to see the art of story telling reemerged. The resurrection of storytelling is a key turning point in the history of Greek art
Exekias, Ajax and Achilles
limits conflict to a board game; Attic black amphora, whole vessel 24". Made by the best black figure painter ever. Intricate engraved cloak patterns and highlights with delicate touches of white. The arched formed by the backs of the figures is echoes the shape of the rounded shoulders of the amphora. The negative space between the 2 figures also echoes the shape of the vessel. The diagonal spears lead the viewers eye to the table of dice and the figures are looking down but theirs eyes are starring out at us like the old style. Even w/ his artistic brilliance he is still wedded to the old manner
Anonymous Painter responsible for the birth of red figure. Copy of Exekias's vase of Achilles and Ajax, but without as much intensity. Amphora on the left know as bilingual vases. These were only produced for a short time.
Ergotimos, Kleitias, Francois Vase
volute krater; signed potter and painter; Black figure named after the excavator who uncovered it., c. 570 BC. Athenians learned for the Corinthians how to paint the black figure vase. Both the painter (Kleitias) and the potter (Ergotimos) signed this piece twice. 200 figure w/in 6 friezes. Labels are all over naming humans and animals. The rest includes an array of Greek mythology, focusing on the exploits of Peleus and his son Achillies, the great hero of Homer's Illiad, and of Theseus, the legendary king of Athens.
Orientalizing motifs are seen in the band of it. The change from black figure to red figure is significant. The excruciating technical problem of incising details into black glaze, which makes the black figures seem more stiff than the red-figures, was alleviated by the much more flexible brush used to indicate details in the red-figures.
In the black figure technique, artists painted designs-figures, objects or abstract motifs-with slip in silhouette on the clay vessels. Then using a sharp tool, stylus, they cut through the slip into the body of the vessel, incising linear details within the silhouette. In the red-figure technique the process was reversed. Artist painted the background around the figures with the slip then drew details within the figures with the same slip using a brush. In both techniques artists often enhanced their work with touches of white and reddish purple gloss, pigments mixed with slip. Firing produced the distinctive black or red images.
First paints figures in black
Black is engobe: phase one turns both pot and slip red with firing, phase two (reducing) clay and slip turn black due to lack of oxygen, phase three coarser material of the pot reabsorbs oxygen and turns red, slip remains black b/c its smoother and silica-laden
Euphronios, Euxitheos, Death of Sarpedon
_____________ (painter), _______________ (potter), ________________: on calyx krater (handles covered up); carried off battle field by Hypnos (sleep) and Thanatos (Death), watched by Hermes
Niobid Painters, Apollo and Artemis slaying the children of Niobe
get their name from this krater where one side is devoted to the massacre of the Niobids, the children of Niobe, by Apollo and Artemis. Niobe, who had 12 children boosted she was superior to the goddess Leto, who only had 2 kids. To punish her arrogance and teach the lesson that no mortal could be superior to any god or goddess, Leto sent her 2 children to slay all of Niobi's sons and daughters.
Schematic landscape among rocks and trees, disposed figures on several levels. Actively interacting with their setting. One son fallen on rocky outcropping & he's partially hidden by it. Face is draw in 3 quarter view, something not attempted before
Phiale Painters, Hermes bringing the infant Dionysos to Papposilenos
White-ground vases became popular in the Classical Period. A highly refined clay slip produced the white ground on which the design elements were painted. After firing the vessel, the artists frequently added details and areas of bright and pastel hues using tempera, a paint made form egg yolks, water, and pigments. B/c the tempera paints were fragile, these colors flaked off easily, and a few perfect examples have survived
Man and Centaur
Hercules and Centaur Chiron; Geometric Sculpture in the round, bronze, small only 4 ½ " high. Possible Herakles battling the centaur Nessos, who carried the hero's bride across a river then assaulted (wrapped) her. Centaur is any mythological creature ½ horse ½ man. Geometric artists was not limited to scenes inspired by daily life and death. Hence the vases. The centaur is a pure Greek invention. During this time frame the Greeks would have been exposed to the the monsters that were popular in Egyptian and Near Eastern.
It's not likely that the artist would have seen such a creature. The centaur has horse hind legs and human front legs and torso, much like the figure of the hero. The hero is portrayed much larger to (contradictory to nature) the horse to indicate that he will be the victor. Contrast to the Near Eastern sculptures the Greek figures are nude. Even here in the beginning of Greek Figural art we see the natural instinct that the Greeks felt for the beauty for the human body. Greek athletes practiced and competed in the nude in the Olympic games. The 2 figures confront each other after the man has stabbed the centaur. The sculptor has reduced the body parts to simple geometric shapes, arranging them in a composition of solid forms and open negative spaces that makes the piece pleasing to the eye. Most of these types of works have been found in sanctuaries, suggesting that they may have been votive offerings to the gods
Apollo by Mantiklos
This sculpture was dedicated to a god by Mantiklos. A message from the dedicator to the deity is inscribed on the thigh. The message reads, "Mantiklos dedicated me as a tithe to the far shooting Lord of the Silver Bow; you Phoibos (Apollo), might give some pleasing favor in return."
The Greeks conceived their gods in human form and because of this, we can not be sure if this is Mantiklos or Apollo. However if the left hand once held the bow cited in the message then we are dealing with the deity.
The artist pays careful attention to the detail in the hair and the sculpted stomach and pectoral muscles, which give shape to the triangular torso. The youthful figure's long hair subsequently elongates the neck. The deep eye sockets were once inlaid with stones, and their may have been a helmet on the head.
At the time of this sculpture there was an increase in Greek trade and colonization, and Greek artists were exposed to many Eastern pieces, like small ivory carvings. This close frequent contact to the near east had a profound impact on Greek art, hence this period has been dubbed "Orientalizing."
Exekias, Suicide of Ajax
2nd bravest fighter in Trojan war; distraught by Achilles honor, not his, preparing to take his life
Lady of Auxerre
daedalic style; Most likely she originated in Crete. Maiden (female = Kore pl. Kori), statue of a goddess. Popularly named after the French town that is her oldest known provenance. We are uncertain as to whether she is a mortal or a deity. She wears a long skirt and a cape, as seen on the Prinias women, but the Auxerre maiden has no headdress. The right hand across the chest is most likely a gesture of prayer, this indicates that this is a kore. Only a little over 2 feet tall this figure appears to be much larger than she actually is, however she is smaller than the seated goddess of Prinias, but larger than most of the bronze pieces of this era.
This figure is Daedalic, after the legendary artist, Daedalus, whose name means the skillful one. Characteristic of the daedalic style is the triangular flat-topped head framed by long strands of hair that form complementary triangles to that of the face. Also typical are the small belted waist and a fondness for pattern: the pattern on the skirt is covered with geometric squares, once brightly painted.
encaustic painting (wax); wears simple long woolen belted garment, gives female figure a column like appearance
combination of peristyle/peripteral: columns on inside and all around; least frequently seen
Temple of Aphaia
To give a sense of 3-d the sculptor would place some figures behind others, overlapping as many as 3 of them varying the depth of the relief. To counter any sense of deep recession, all the figures would be the same height with their feet on the same ground line. The long pediments of Greek Temples provided a perfect stage for storey telling, but the triangular pediment provided a problem in composition. The sculptor of this pediment provided a creative solution that became a design standard. The subject of the pediment rendered in fully 3-d figures, is the sack of Troy
From East Pediment Temple Aphaia; best preserved pediment figure; Originally would have been painted and had bronze accessories, here the sculptor has fully exploited the framework of the pediment, twisting in space capturing agony and vulnerability; Archaic - bulging eyes; smile, stylized beard
West pediment of temple of Artemis. Huge sculptures; very archaic with stylized hair, smile, bulging eyes
formed against Persia: Athens in charge of money, but spend it on city-state = Pelopenisian Wars
began as an open space for artists and farmers would display their wares; over time public and private structures were erected
Temple of Nike
ionic; amphi-prostyle; the earliest Ionic temple on the Acropolis, compensated by its prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance (propylaea). There the citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a prosperous outcome in the long war fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies. The Temple was an expression of Athens' ambition to be the leading Greek city state in the Peloponnese. The Temple sits within the sanctuary of Athena Nike, atop a bastion on the south flank of the great stair to the Athenian Acropolis
Persia, Athens, Athena, civilization, barbarism
Themes of Parthenon:
triumph over _________
preeminence of _______ due to favor of ________
triumph of _________ over _________
Poseidon, Athena, Athena, doric, Great Panathenaia
West: Contest of _________ and ________
East: Birth of _______
_______ frieze on exterior: 92 metopes depicts legendary battles-god against giant, Greek against Trojan, Greek against Amazon, lapiths with Centaurs
Short colonnades in front of each entrance support entablature with Ionic Frieze depicting the ________ ______________
second largest structure on acropolis; contest between Poseidon and Athena supposedly happened there; mark of Poseidon's trident enclosed there (spring); houses memorial to Kekrops (founder of Athens); Porch of Maidens = caryatids
transitional or Early/5th Century Classical Period; still stiff pose yet outreaching; lost wax; Based on the inscriptions we know that this piece commemorates a victory by a driver in the Pythian games of 478 or 474 BCE. Pliny the elder writes that 3-time winners in Greek competitions had their features immortalized in statues and faces in the Transitional Classical period have a sullen look. This figure even seems to pout a little, his head is turned slightly to one side. His intimidating expression is enhanced by colored glass eyes & fine silver eyelashes. He stands erect, with its almost columnar fluting, is the epitome of elegance. The folds in the robe fall in a natural way, and the whole garment looks like it could sway with the Charioteer's movement. The feet are so detailed and realistic that they could have been cast from molds made from a living person
Transitional or Early/5th Classical Period; original bronze; naked; movement of feet - contrapposta; lost in ship wreck so not melted down; has many detailed elements to the eye and touch. The navel the swelling veins in the backs of the hands, and the strand by strand rendering of the hair. We also see an idealized, youthful smoothness to the rest of the body. Life-like elements were also added by inserting eyeballs of bone and colored glass, applying eyelashes and eyebrows of separately cast fine strand of bronze, also insetting the lips & nipples w/ pinkish copper, and plating the teeth that show btw the parted lips. Originally he held a shield and sword, most likely commemorating a military victory
Myron, Discus Thrower
catches the athlete in a critical moment, the breathless instant before the concentrated energy of his body will unwind to propel the discus into space. His torso is coiled tightly into a forward arch, and his powerful throwing arm is poised at the top of his backswing
Canon of Polykleitos
Same ideal sought by Socrates and Plato
Canon= Greek rule or measure
Basic unit may have been the width of the hand
Polykleitos, Spear Bearer (Doryphoros)
to artist, the perfect canon of proportions; originally bronze, Romans made a marble copy
Praxiteles, Aphrodite of Knidos
naked woman - challenged tradition; s-curve; island supported artist when patron wouldn't pay
Lysippos, The Scraper (Apoxyomenos)
when taking a bath, put on oil and scrape off; arms closed over chest, Roman leaf covering
Alexander the Great
father = Phillip of Macedonia; tutor = Aristotle, united Greek city states, used coin to spread image
Alexander the Great Confronts Darius III at the Battle of Issos
fresco, original mosaic; Alexander the Great conquering while Darius retreats
Alexander the Great left Asia Minor, Mesopotamia and Persia; Pergamon also Hellenistic capitol to
everyday mortals, individual emotion, melodramatic, figures plunge into space, demand an emotional response from the viewer
action, emotion, drama, form, imperfections
Hellenistic Period: More concerned with depicting _______ and __________
High _______ in sculpture and architecture
Better awareness of ______
Willing to show man's __________
Earlier periods = ideal and general, aloof serenity, heroism of gods and goddesses
Epigonos, Dying Gaul
Commissioned by Attalus I of Pergamon to commemorate the victory over the Galatians
; trumpet; facial hair/hair = foreigner (barbarian); in the round; original bronze, this one marble
Epigonos, Gallic Chieftain Killing His Wife and Himself
when lost, many high officials killed themselves
Altar of Zeus
shows Greeks victory over the giants: In the Altar a Gigantomachy is shown with 34 goddesses, 20 gods, 59 giants and 28 animals (serpents, dogs, horses, the flying steeds of Zeus, mules and lions). The names of the gods are chiseled at the cornice, while the giants' names are chiseled on the pedestal next to the names of the sculptors. Among the many gods there are in principle also two humans (or semi-gods), Dionysus and (Hercules). Byzantine conquerors tore it down and used the marble to build a wall, Karl Humann (German) discovered the altar and recently Bertolin restored the frieze
Hagesandros, Polydoros, and Athanadoros of Rhodes, Laocoon and His Sons
Hellenistic because emotion, motion, and facial hair; fighting off snake from Greeks at Troy (people think it's a punishment from the gods)
Nike of Samothrace
Hellenistic because movement and draping; originally in niche on hillside over a pool to give the impression of a boat; thought to commemorate a naval victory; displayed in a similar fashion at the Louvre
perfect, everyday, draped
_________ but still see outline