Science Exam Study Guide

what is work?
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levers are divided into classes according to the location of the...fulcrum, load (resistance), and effortIf you do 50 J of work in 5 S, what is your power?10 WList 3 examples of a wedge.knife, axe, saw, chisela jar lid is an example of what kind of simple machine?screwWhat is the mechanical advantage of a wheel and axle where the wheel's radius is 10 cm and the axle's radius is 2 cm?5a zipper is made from 3...wedgeswhen you turn a screw, you apply...small force, longer distancewhen you move a lever's fulcrum closer to the load than to the input force, you achieve...greater output forcelist an example of a 2nd class leverwheelbarrow, bottle-openerhammering a nail into wood is an example of...3rd class leverwhich of the following light bulbs does the most work each second? 40 W, 60 W 100 W100 wattsln 1989, a hamburger with a mass of 2,500 kg was cooked in Wisconsin. What is the mechanical advantage of the ramp used to move the hamburger if the ramp has a length of 100 m and a height of 20 m?5A device that can convert chemical energy to electrical energy is a _.battery, cellobjects that have opposite charges...attractthe strength of the electric force depends on the...size, distance of objectsa material in which charges cannot travel easily through is a(n)...insulatorall circuits include...load, wires, energy sourceWhen a switch is open, two pieces of conducting material (touch, do not touch)do not touchSuppose you have four bulbs in a series circuit. If you were to add five more bulbs in series with these four, what would happen to the brightness of the bulbs?dimmerwaves transferenergyThe wave property that is related to the height of a wave is the...amplitudethe loudness of a sound is the measure of wave...amplitudeWaves in which the particles vibrate at right angles to the direction that the wave is traveling are called...transverseA ... is a section of a wave where the particles are less crowded than normalrarefactionCompressions and rarefactions are sections of which type of wave?longitudinalwhat is frequency?the amount of waves that pass within a secondwhat occurs when a wave bounces back after striking a barrier?reflectionwhat happens when the crests of one wave overlap the crests of another wave?constructive interferenceA wave formed as a result of constructive interference has a (large / small ) amplitude.largeWhile a singer sings a long, high note, a drinking glass on a table next to her begins to vibrate. The vibration of the glass is a result of...resonanceBats emit sound waves having high frequencies and listen for the echoes as the waves bounce off of insects. In other words, bats use ... sound waves to locate the food they eatreflectedThe speed of a sound depends on...the mediumthe complete back-and-forth motion of an object is called a...vibrationAs air particles are pushed closer together, they create a region of higher density and pressure called a...compressionSound travels as a(n)... wavelongitudinalsounds with frequencies that are lower than 2o Hz are called...infrasonicA wave is ... when it strikes a barrier and bounces backreflectedDescribe a place you would most likely hear echoes.a canyonWhen constructive interference occurs, a sound will be. (louder/ softer / higher / lower )louderSome dental hygienists use ultrasound to clean the tartar from patients' teeth because the frequency of the ultrasound wave matches the frequency of the chemical bonds in the tartar. The tartar shatters because of...resonanceThe bending of sound waves through openings is called...diffractionThe rumbling sound of thunder is heard when lightning strikes far away because...only low frequencies can bend around barriersSound that includes a random mix of pitches is called...noiseWhich type of electromagnetic wave travels the fastest in a vacuum?same speedElectromagnetic waves are made of...vibrating electric and magnetic fieldsList the EM waves in order of increasing microwaves infrared visible light ultraviolet xray gammaA(n) ... can travel through space or matter.electromagnetic waveElectromagnetic waves are...transverse wavesThe fields of electromagnetic waves are ... direction of the wave motion.perpendicularA particle with an electric charge is surrounded by a(n)...electric fieldThe abbreviation AM stands for...amplitude modulationThe abbreviation FM stands for...frequency modulationRadio waves ... that can be converted into sound.cannot be heard but do carry energyMicrowaves have shorter wavelengths and higher frequencies than...radioTelevision stations use which type of waves for sound? Pictures?sound: FM pictures: AMEM waves are classified by...wavelength and frequencyYou feel warm when you sit outside on a sunny day because the sun emits...infrared wavesorange light is... when white light shines on an orange.reflectedyou make cyan light by and bluelist the primary colors of lightred, blue, greenlist the primary colors of pigmentmagenta, cyan, yellowshadows have blurry shadows because of...diffractionprisms produce rainbows through...refractionwhat causes the apparent colors of objects we see?reflection of wavelength of visible lightwhat has the shortest wavelength on the visible light spectrum?violetwhat has the longest wavelength on the visible light spectrum?redto calculate an objects acceleration, you need to know velocity, initial velocity, and time V(final) - V(initial)/timewhat is gravity affected by?mass and distanceTwo forces act on an object. One force has a magnitude of 10 N and is directed toward the north. The other force has a magnitude of 5 N and is directed toward the south. What is the objects net force?5 N northwhat is the formula for speed?S= D/Tthe unit for speed is...m/sthe unit for acceleration is...m/s/sYou are in Chicago, Illinois. You decide to head south to Austin, Texas. In one hour you travel 80 km. What is your velocity?80 km/h southIf a bus is traveling 15 m/s south speeds up to 20 m/s, this is a change in its...speed, velocity, accelerationA car traveling 20 m/s south enters a new highway going east at 20 m/s. The car (has / has not) accelerated.has notWhen velocity decreases, this could be referred to as ... or ...deceleration or negative accelerationbalanced forces applied to an object (will / will not) move the objectwill nota force that opposes motion between 2 surfaces that are touching is called...frictionyou ride your bike north for 100m at a constant speed of 5 m/s. Your acceleration is...0At the bottom of a hill, a runner jogs 4 m/s north. One minute later, at the top of the hill, the joggers velocity is only 1 m/s north. What is the jogger's acceleration from the bottom to the top of the hill?-1/20 m/s/s northIn a storm, wind blows with a velocity of 10 m/s south. 5 seconds later, the winds velocity is 25 m/s south. What is the acceleration of the wind?3 m/s/s southIf three balls of different materials were dropped at the same time from the same height, which would hit the ground first? (Assume there is no air resistance)same timeOrbital motion is a combination of .... and ....inertia and free fallAn apple falls from a tree. The gravitational force on the apple is 1 N. If the air resistance is 0.1 N, what is the net force on the apple?0.9 N downwardWhat is Newton's 3rd law of motion?Every action has an equal but opposite reaction.If a car driver suddenly makes a sharp turn, the passenger slides to the side of the car because of...inertia