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AP Comparitive Government
AP Comparitive Government #1
Terms in this set (63)
the study and comparison of domestic across countries.
Organizations or activities that are self-perpetuating and valued for their own sake
the struggle in any group for power that will give one or more persons the ability to make decisions for the larger group.
the ability to influence or impose one's will on others. Politics is thus about the competition for public power, and power is about the ability to extend one's will.
A way to make comparisons across cases and draw conclusions.
taking events and making a generalizations
Arriving at a specific truth from generalizations
A focus on effects rather than causes, which can lead to innacurate conclusions about correlation or causation
The problem of determining cause and effect. Major obstacle in comparitive research
as societies developed, they would become capitalist democracies.
hoped to generate theories and generalizations that could help explain and even predict political activity. Shifted away from political institutions and towards individual political behavior.
Mastery of a limited number of cases through the detailed study of their history, language, and culture. Emphasis on depth over breadth.
Gathering of statistical data across a large number of countries in order to look for correlations and test hypotheses about cause and effect. Emphasis on breadth over depth
Rational Choice/Game theory
human beings are rational, in the sense that their behavior conforms to some generally understandable behavior
the ability of an individual to act independently, without fear of restriction or punishment by the state or other individuals or groups in society.
A shared material standard of individuals within a community, society or country.
The organization that maintains a monopoly of violence over a territory.
the ability to carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals
the leadership or elite in charge of running the state
state, government, regime-as well as the people who live within that political system
a value whereby something or someone is recognized and accepted as right and proper.
Legitimacy of a person or an office because it has always been so. e.g the queen of England. Strongly institutionalized
legitimacy based on the power of ideas, or what is sometimes called "the gift of grace" e.g Ghandi. weakly institutionalized.
Built on rules and procedures and the offices that create and enforce those rules; strongly institutionalized
Significant powers, such as taxation, lawmaking, and security are devolved to regional bodies
invest most political power at the national level, with limited local authority
Decentralization in states, increase state legitimacy by vesting political power closer to the people, a concern as states have grown larger and more complex over time.
states able to fulfill basic tasks and even some more difficult tasks: defend their territory, make and enforce rules and rights, collect taxes, and manage the economy etc.
States that struggle with basic tasks
States that are inable to complete basic tasks.
the ability of the state to wield power in order to carry out the basic tasks of providing security and reconciling freedom and equality.
the ability of the state to wield its power independently of the public or international actors
Complex human organizations, a collection of people bound by shared institutions that define how human relations should be conducted.
A person's relationship to other members of society. A set of institutions that bind people together through a common culture.
a set of institutions that bind people together through common political aspirations
a pride in one's people and the belief that they have their own sovereign political destiny that is separate from those of others.
an individuals or a group's relationship to the state: those who are citizens swear allegiance to that state, and that state in return is obligated to provide rights to those individuals or the members of that group
Pride in one's state. People are this when they have pride in their political system and seek to defend and promote it.
a sovereign state encompassing one dominant nation that it claims to embody and represent.
conflict between ethnic groups that struggle to achieve certain political or economic goals at each other's expense.
one or more groups have as their goal sovereignty, clashing with others in the quest to form an independent state
Concerned with the speed and methods of political change. Generally classified as radical, liberal, conservative or reactionary
Believe in dramatic, often revolutionary change of the existing political, social or economic order.
favor evolutionary change. In the liberal view, progressive change can happen through changes within the system; it does not require an overthrow of the system itself.
question whether any significant or profound change in existing institutions is necessary. Conservatives are skeptical of the of the view that change is necessarily good in itself and instead view it as disruptive and leading to unforeseen outcomes.
seek to restore political, social and economic institutions. Reactionaries advocate a restoration of values, a change back to a previous regime or state that they believe was superior to the current order.
sets of political values held by individuals regarding the fundamental goals of politics
an ideology, places a high priority on individual political and economic freedom. Politics should seek to create the maximum degree of liberty for all people, including free speech, the right of association, and other basic political rights. This goal requires a state with a low degree of autonomy and capacity so that can be easily controlled or checked by the public.
An ideology with a system of political, social, and economic liberties supported by competition, participation and contestation
an ideology that rejects the idea that personal freedom will ensure prosperity for the majority. It holds that in the inevitable struggle over economic resources, a small group will eventually come to dominate both the market and the state.
An ideology sometimes called socialism, accepts a strong role for private ownership and market forces while still maintaining an emphasis on economic equality.
An ideology that is hostile to the idea of individual freedom and also rejects the notion of equality. Instead, facism rests on the idea that people and groups can be classified in terms of inferiority and superiority
An ideology drastically different from the rest. Rejects the notion of the state altogether
an ideology that seeks to unite religion with the state, or rather, to make faith the sovereign authority-a kind of theocracy.
Comprises those basic institutions that help define a society. Acts as a social road map telling people what is acceptable and not acceptable and providing guidelines and priorities for how people should organize their lives.
refers specifically to the basic norms for political activity in a society.
decentralizes monarchial ruler, people are bound to the nearest lord, rather than one omnipotent leader.
Treaty of Westphalia-people were able to practice their own religion where they lived, sovereign
has the basic form of democracy but does not protect civil liberties
Single Member Districts (SMD)
First past the post, you get the most votes you get 100% of the vote. Creates majority, binary choices
Multiple Member Districts (MMD)
Vote for a party knowing that they will get some representation. many voices can be heard, but hard to get a majority.
Mix between SMD and MMD. e.g mexico with 3 senates. two for the leading party and one for the runner up.
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