chapter 4 ecosystems and energy (environment)

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hydrosphereearths supply of water liquid and frozen fresh and saltylithospherethe soil and rock of earths crustenergycapacity or ability to do workkilojoulesunits of workkilocaloriesunits of heat energy. the energy required to raise the temperature of 1kg of wear by 1 degree Celsius equals 4.184KJpotential energystored energykinetic energyenergy of motionchemical energyenergy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules ex. foodradiant or solar energyenergy transported from the sun as electromagnetic wavesheat energythermal energy that flows from an object with a lighter temperaturemechanical energyenergy in the movement of matternuclear energyenergy found within atomic nucleielectrical energyenergy that flows as charged particlesthermodynamicsthe study of energy and its transformationsclosed systema system that does not exchange energy with its surroundingsopen systemis one that can exchange energy with its surroundingfirst law of thermodynamicsenergy cannot be created or destroyed, although it can be transformed from one for to anothersecond law of thermodynamicswhenever energy is converted from one form to another, some usable energy that is energy available to do work is degraded into heat a less usable form that disperses into the environmentphotosynthesisthe biological process in which light energy from the sun is captured and transformed into the chemical energy of carbohydrate(sugar) moleculeschlorophyllgives plants their green color, absorb radiant energy. 6CO(2) +12H20 + RADIANT ENERGY -> C6H1206 +6H20+ 6O2consumer/heterotrophsuse the bodies of other organisms as a source of food energy and body building materialscellular respirationmolecules such as glucose are broken down in the presence of oxygen and water into carbon dioxide and water with the release of energyhydro thermal ventsAn opening in the seafloor out of which heated mineral-rich water flowProducers/Autotrophsmanufacture complex organic molecules from simple inorganic substances generally carbon dioxide and water usually using the energy of sunlight to do soprimary consumer / herbivoreconsumers that eat producers. PLANT EATERSsecondary consumerseat primary consumers..carnivoretertiary consumerseat secondary consumers...carnivoreomnivoreseat a variety of organisms both plant and animaldetritus feeders/ detritivoresconsumer organic matter that includes animal carcasses, leaf litter , and fees. ex snails crabs clams and wormsdecomposers/saprotrophsmicrobial heterotrophs that break down dead organic material and use the decomposition products to supply themselves with energytrophic leveleach level or link in a food chainfood chainsenergy from food passes from one organism to the next in a sequencekrillhuge population of herbivores tiny shrimplike animalsecological pyramidsgraphically represent the relative energy values of each trophic levelpyramid of numbersshows the number of organisms at each trophic level in a given ecosystempyramid of biomassillustrates the total biomass at each successive trophic levelbiomassquantitative estimate of the total mass or amount of living material it indicates the amount of fixed energy at a particular timeGross primary productivity (GPP)an ecosystem is the rate at which energy is captured during photosynthesisPrimary productivity (NPP)the amount of biomass found in excess of that broken by a plants cellular respiration for normal daily activities for survival