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What are the two categories the nervous system is broken into?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
The somatic and visceral nervous systems make up what part of the nervous system?
Peripheral Nervous System
In the somatic nervous system what does afferent mean?
Afferent means there is a signal from sensory neurons going to the CNS.
What does efferent mean in the somatic nervous system?
Efferent means the motor nerve signal is exiting the CNS going to a target cell (skeletal muscle).
What does the efferent nerve do in the visceral nervous system?
The efferent nerve or autonomic nerve innervate the heart, smooth muscle, and glands to provide constant motion.
What is the function of glial cells?
Glial cells are associated with neurons and aid in neuron function and nutrition. They do not conduct AP.
Are neurons usually mitotic (meaning divided) in adults?
No, neurons do not divide or are not mitotic.
What are the three connections of neurons?
1. Connect with other neurons
2. Connect with effector organ like glands and skeletal m. (Efferent)
3. Connect with sensory structures (Afferent)
What is the structure of a neuron?
A neuron is composed of a large, pale nucleus plus a prominent nucleolus, hillock, and cell body.
What is the function of dendrites?
Dendrites function to increase surface area for cell to cell signaling.
What organelles do axons have?
Vesicles, mitochondria, intermediate filaments (neurofilaments), and microtubules.
What is the function of microtubules in an axon?
Microtubules transport molecules from the cells body to the end of the axon.
What are the types of neurons and how are they determined?
Multipolar Neurons (Most Common) = 1 axon + many dendrites
Bipolar = 1 axon + 1 dendrite
Pseudo-unipolar = 1 axon + 1 dendrite + short cytoplasmic stalk
What is the function of schwann cells?
Schwann cells surround axons except in specialized areas of contact with other neurons, provide insulation, and protection.
What is the difference between myelinated and unmyelinated?
Myelinated (have multiple layers) forms myelin sheaths that are tightly wrapped around axons with schwann cell plasma membrane. This membrane is lipid-rich, has low permeability, and insulates. Unmyelinated axons lie in simple invagination in Schwann cell membrane (is not layered).
What occurs at a Node of Ranvier?
Depolarization and formation of AP and and AP jumps from one node to another.
What is a general organization of the PNS?
Collection of nerve axons
Contains Schwann cells
Usually has both myelinated and unmyelinated axons
Has both afferent and efferent axons
Where is epineurium found and what does it help with?
Vascular - oxygen transportation to the nerves
Where are nerve cell bodies located?
Nerve cell bodies are grouped in areas outside or inside the CNS.
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