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Lab list 2 - Bones of the vertebral column and thorax

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Vertebral formula (for dog)
C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd20
Vertebral arch
subdivided into pedicles and laminae - along with the body forms the vertebral foramen
Vertebral foramen
main/largest hole in the individual vertebrae - formed by the body, and vertebral arch
Intervertebral foramina
right and left - holes between adjacent vertebrae formed by the notches of the vertebrae - spinal nerves and blood vessels pass through
Transverse Foramina
on atlas - short canals that pass obliquely through the transverse processes of the atlas - contain the vertebral artery and vein
Lateral vertebral foramina
on atlas - perforate the cranial part of the vertebral arch - first cervical spinal nerves pass through
Mamillary process
knob like dorsal projection of the transverse processes of the 2nd through 10th thoracic vertebrae and cranial articular processes of the 11th thoracic through the caudal vertebrae

Epaxial muscles of the transversospinalis system attach to these processes
sacrum
3 sacral vertebrae fused together - lies between the ilia and firmly articulates with them
median sacral crest
on sacrum - fusion of 3 spinous processes
Dorsal sacral foramina
2 pairs on dorsal surface of sacrum - transmit the dorsal branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves
Pelvic sacral foramina
ventral surface of sacrum - 2 pairs - transmit the ventral branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves
Costal arch
costal cartilages of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs unite with eachother
head of the rib
1-10 articulates with costal foveae of 2 adjacent vertebrae and fibrocartilage between them - 11-13 articulate only with cranial costal fovea on the body of the vertebrae with same number
Tubercle of rib
articulates with costal fovea of the transverse process of the vertebra of the same number
sternebrae
8 unpaired segments of the sternum
Intersternebral cartilages
join the consecutive sternebrae together
Manubrium
1st sternebra
Xiphoid process
last sternebra