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subdivided into pedicles and laminae - along with the body forms the vertebral foramen
main/largest hole in the individual vertebrae - formed by the body, and vertebral arch
right and left - holes between adjacent vertebrae formed by the notches of the vertebrae - spinal nerves and blood vessels pass through
on atlas - short canals that pass obliquely through the transverse processes of the atlas - contain the vertebral artery and vein
Lateral vertebral foramina
on atlas - perforate the cranial part of the vertebral arch - first cervical spinal nerves pass through
knob like dorsal projection of the transverse processes of the 2nd through 10th thoracic vertebrae and cranial articular processes of the 11th thoracic through the caudal vertebrae
Epaxial muscles of the transversospinalis system attach to these processes
Dorsal sacral foramina
2 pairs on dorsal surface of sacrum - transmit the dorsal branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves
Pelvic sacral foramina
ventral surface of sacrum - 2 pairs - transmit the ventral branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves
head of the rib
1-10 articulates with costal foveae of 2 adjacent vertebrae and fibrocartilage between them - 11-13 articulate only with cranial costal fovea on the body of the vertebrae with same number
Tubercle of rib
articulates with costal fovea of the transverse process of the vertebra of the same number
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