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Vertebral formula (for dog)

C7 T13 L7 S3 Cd20

Vertebral arch

subdivided into pedicles and laminae - along with the body forms the vertebral foramen

Vertebral foramen

main/largest hole in the individual vertebrae - formed by the body, and vertebral arch

Intervertebral foramina

right and left - holes between adjacent vertebrae formed by the notches of the vertebrae - spinal nerves and blood vessels pass through

Transverse Foramina

on atlas - short canals that pass obliquely through the transverse processes of the atlas - contain the vertebral artery and vein

Lateral vertebral foramina

on atlas - perforate the cranial part of the vertebral arch - first cervical spinal nerves pass through

Mamillary process

knob like dorsal projection of the transverse processes of the 2nd through 10th thoracic vertebrae and cranial articular processes of the 11th thoracic through the caudal vertebrae

Epaxial muscles of the transversospinalis system attach to these processes


3 sacral vertebrae fused together - lies between the ilia and firmly articulates with them

median sacral crest

on sacrum - fusion of 3 spinous processes

Dorsal sacral foramina

2 pairs on dorsal surface of sacrum - transmit the dorsal branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves

Pelvic sacral foramina

ventral surface of sacrum - 2 pairs - transmit the ventral branches of the first 2 sacral spinal nerves

Costal arch

costal cartilages of the 10th, 11th and 12th ribs unite with eachother

head of the rib

1-10 articulates with costal foveae of 2 adjacent vertebrae and fibrocartilage between them - 11-13 articulate only with cranial costal fovea on the body of the vertebrae with same number

Tubercle of rib

articulates with costal fovea of the transverse process of the vertebra of the same number


8 unpaired segments of the sternum

Intersternebral cartilages

join the consecutive sternebrae together


1st sternebra

Xiphoid process

last sternebra

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