the process in which monomers with at least one double bond react together to form a polymer by addition reactions
a reaction in which one molecule bonds covalently with another molecule without losing any other atoms
a simple, saturated binary compound of carbon and hydrogen atoms with single bonds between the carbon atoms. The general formula for all members of this homologous series is CnH2n + 2.
the electrode at which oxidation occurs. In a galvanic cell, it is the negative electrode, since it is the source of negative electrons for the circuit. If the reductant is a metal, it is used as the electrode material.
the number of elementary particles (atoms) in exactly 12 g of carbon-12. This number is equal to 6.02 × 1023.
an analytical technique in which the unknown concentration of a substance is found by adding an excess of another reactant then titrating back with another substance
a solution that resists the change in pH of the addition of a small amount of acid or base
general name for a class of carbon compounds that includes sugars, starch and cellulose. Carbohydrates contain the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
the electrode at which reduction occurs. In a galvanic cell, it is the positive electrode, since the negative electrons are drawn towards it, then consumed by the oxidant, which is present in the electrolyte.
the difference between the electrode potentials of the half-cells of a galvanic cell; also called voltage
step-growth polymerisation in which two monomers combine and a smaller molecule is eliminated
reactions in which molecules react and link together by covalent bonding with the elimination of a small molecule such as water or hydrogen chloride from the bond that is formed
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
a complex molecule that contains genetic information for the development and function of all living organisms
double covalent bond
a strong bond formed by two pairs of electrons that are shared by the two nuclei
the decomposition of a chemical substance (in solution or the molten state) by the application of electrical energy
an electric cell in which a non-spontaneous redox reaction is made to occur by the application of an external potential difference across the electrodes
a set of separate coloured lines emitted by excited electrons returning to the ground state from an excited state. Each element has a unique emission spectrum.
the experimentally determined equivalence point at which the indicator just changes colour or the pH curve becomes vertical
an organic compound formed from a condensation reaction between an alcohol and a carboxylic acid
a method of separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on the ease of vaporisation of the components
a group of atoms attached to or part of a hydrocarbon chain that influence the physical and chemical properties of the molecule
two half-cells connected by an external circuit that transfers electrons between an oxidant and a reductant that would react spontaneously if in direct contact
one half of a galvanic cell containing an electrode immersed in an electrolyte that may be the oxidant or the reductant depending on the oxidising strength of the other cell it is connected to
a series of organic compounds that have the same structure but in which the formula of each molecule differs from the next by a CH2 group
species with the same chemical formulae but different structural formulae and therefore different properties
a nuclear reaction in which multiple nuclei are joined together to form a heavier nucleus
the monomer that makes up the DNA polymer. Nucleotides are composed of a sugar (deoxyribose) joined to a phosphate group and a heterocyclic base molecule
viscous, oily liquid composed of crude oil and natural gas that was formed by geological processes acting on marine organisms over millions of years
a solid with low solubility that forms in a liquid then settles to the bottom of a container
a substance used in volumetric analysis that is of such high purity and stability that it can be used to prepare a solution of accurately known concentration
investigations used to identify the presence or absence of elements, ions or molecules in a sample
investigations used to determine the amount of a given element or compound in a known weight or volume of material
the potential of a reduction half-cell relative to the standard hydrogen electrode; also called electrode potential
relative atomic mass, Ar
the mean mass of the naturally occurring mixture of the isotopes of an element on the relative atomic mass scale, on which the masses of particles are compared with the mass of the carbon-12 isotope
a component that provides a supply of mobile ions that balance the charges built up in the half-cells of a galvanic cell during reaction
specific heat capacity
the amount of energy (measured in joules) required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a pure substance by 1°C
molecules that have the same molecular formula but a different structural formula
reactions in which one or more atoms of a molecule are replaced by different atoms
process to determine the concentration of a substance by using a pipette to deliver one substance and a burette to deliver another substance until they have reacted exactly in their mole ratios
compound in which not all carbon-carbon bonds are single bonds; the molecule could contain one or more double or triple bonds