66 terms

Federalist Era

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Judiciary Act of 1789
Congress established the federal court system with the
State Department
Which federal department oversees relations with other countries?
alien
A person living in a country in which he or she is not a citizen is a(n)
Bond
A certificate issued when a person loans money to a government or corporation. The money is usually paid back over a specified period of time (or future date) with a fixed interest rate
Cabinet
A group of advisers to the POTUS. The group is usually composed of the Vice President, the Attorney General and the heads of the executive departments (e.g. State Department).
Caucus
A meeting held by a group of like-minded people (e.g. political party) to select candidates for political office or to decide policy
implied powers
Powers assumed by a government that were not specifically granted by that government's constitution.
impressment
Forcing people into service (e.g. in the 1790s the British Navy would take people and force them to be sailors)
national debt
The total amount of money a country owes its creditors (people, companies or governments that loaned it money).
deficit
The amount of money a country borrows in a given year.
neutrality
Not taking sides in a conflict.
nullify
To cancel or make powerless.
partisan
Someone who strongly supports a particular political party, side in a conflict, viewpoint, etc.
precedent
An act or decision that people tend to repeat given a similar situation (e.g. George Washington served only two terms, so no president until FDR in 1940 stood for a third term ).
sedition
Attempting to turn people against the government.
speculator
A person who takes a fairly significant monetary risk in the hopes of earning a high rate of return (large profit).
states' rights
Rights and/or powers reserved for the states by the Constitution (10th Amendment - "The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.")
tariff
A tax collected on imported or exported goods.
unconstitutional
Not allowed by a constitution.
John Adams
The first Vice President of the United States was
Alexander Hamilton
The first Secretary of the Treasury was
Thomas Jefferson
Who was the first Secretary of State?
Henry Knox
Who was the first Secretary of War?
Edmund Randolph
Who was the first Attorney General of the United States?
John Jay
Who was the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
the federal court system
The Judiciary Act of 1789 established
tariffs.
In the 1790s, approximately 90% of the federal government's income was from
Pinckney's Treaty
Which treaty set the boundary between the U.S. and Spanish territory, allowed for navigation of the Mississippi River, and allowed American use of the port at New Orleans?
Pennsylvania
The tax on whiskey led to rebellion in western
Battle of Fallen Timbers
In the ___________________, an Ameican army under the command of Anthony Wayne defeated the Native Americans under the Shawnee chief Blue Jacket.
Treaty of Greenville
What treaty opened most of present-day Ohio to "white" settlement?
Proclamation of Neutrality
George Washington prohibited American citizens from fighting in the war between Great Britain and France and barred both countries' warships from U.S. ports when he issued the
Jay's Treaty
In which treaty did the British agree to withdraw from U.S. territory, pay reparations for seized ships and allow the U.S. limited trading rights with the British Caribbean colonies?
First Bank of the United States
The ___________________ was the first nationally chartered bank.
strict constructionist
A __________________ is a person who believes that the federal government only has the powers explicitly given it by the U.S. Constitution.
loose constructionist
A __________________ is a person who believes that the U.S. Constitution grants the federal government implied powers -- if the U.S. Constitution doesn't forbid it, the federal government can do it ("elastic clause").
Federalists
Alexander Hamilton and John Adams were
Democratic-Republicans
Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were
Democratic-Republicans
Which political party favored strict constructionism in the 1790s?
Federalists
Which political party favored loose constructionism in the 1790s?
Federalist
Which political party favored a stronger central government in the 1790s?
Virginia and Kentucky
The __________ Resolutions claimed that states could nullify federal law.
Charles de Talleyrand
The French foreign minister who demanded a bribe from American negotiators was
XYZ affair
The diplomatic incident in which the French foreign minister demanded a bribe from American negotiators was the
Sedition Act
What law made it illegal to criticize the government?
Great Compromise (Connecticut Compromise)
The compromise between representatives of the smaller and lager states (by population) during the Constitutional Convention. It called for representation in one house of the legislature to be based on population (House of Representatives) and the other to be the same for each state (Senate).
George Washington
Who was the presiding officer at the Constitutional Convention?
James Madison
__________ is known as the "Father of the Constitution" because of his pivotal role in its creation and ratification.
The Federalist Papers
Mostly written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, __________ is a collection of 85 articles or essays explaining and supporting the ratification of the Constitution of 1787.
Federalists
What were supporters of the new Constitution called?
Antifederalists
What were opponents of the new Constitution called?
Bill of Rights
When the United States Constitution was complete, three delegates refused to sign it because it did not have a ____________________.
popular sovereignty
The idea that the citizens of a country are the ultimate source of political power is known as __________.
Virginia Plan
The __________ would have based each state's representation in a bicameral legislature on population.
New Jersey Plan
The __________ would have given each state one vote in a unicameral legislature.
Three-Fifths Compromise
The __________ settled a dispute between northern and southern states over whether slaves were counted as people when determining a state's representation in Congress.
Enumerated powers
__________ are powers explicitly granted to Congress by Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution.
Concurrent powers
__________ are powers exercised by both federal and state governments.
Implied powers
__________ are powers exercised by the federal government even though the Constitution does not explicitly grant them. The Constitution's "Necessary and Proper Clause", "General Welfare Clause" or the "Commerce Clause" are usually cited as the source of these powers.
Thomas Jefferson
__________ drafted the Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom and but did not participate in the drafting of the Constitution of 1787 due to the fact that he was serving as ambassador to France at the time.
Alexander Hamilton
__________ served in the Constitutional Convention of 1787, wrote most of the Federalist Papers, served as the first Secretary of the Treasury, and was shot and killed in a duel with the third Vice President of the United States (Aaron Burr).
Alexander Hamilton
The first Secretary of the Treasury was __________.
Thomas Jefferson
The first Secretary of State was __________.
permanent Alliances
In his Farewell Address, George Washington warned the country "to steer clear of __________."
James Madison
__________ took a leadership role in writing the first proposed amendments to the Constitution. Twelve of them were passed by Congress, but the states only ratified ten of them at the time (an eleventh was ratified in 1992).
Federal Government
Alexander Hamilton proposed that state debts be paid off by the
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