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26 terms

Energy and the Cell (Enzymes)

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Energy
The capacity to do work
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Chemical Energy
The potential energy of molecules due to stored energy in bonds
Potential energy
Energy stored due to an object's position or arrangement. In the case of chemical energy this is due to bond arrangement
Endergonic Reactions
Energy absorbing reactions
Exergonic Reactions
Energy releasing reactions
Endothermic Reactions
Reactions absorbing energy. Same as endergonic
Exothermic Reactions
Reactions releasing energy. Same as exergonic
Activation Energy
Energy barrier that must be overcome before a chemical reaction can occur
Enzyme
Protein molecule that speeds up chemical reactions in living things by lowering the activation energy
Substrate
The reactants (beginning chemicals) acted on by an enzyme
Active site
Pocket or groove located on the enzyme that fits the substrate
Induced Fit
The mechanism by which the substrates bonds are weakened by the enzyme
Denaturation
The breakdown of enzymes by excessive heat or extreme pH
Inhibitor
Chemical that interferes with an enzymes activity by out-competing substrates for space on the active site of enzyme
Catalase
Enzyme responsible for breaking down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen
Chemical digestion
Enzymatic breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules.
Amylase
Enzyme contained in saliva and pancreatic juices that breaks down starch
Lipase
Enzyme contained in pancreatic juices that breaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
Trypsin
Enzyme contained in pancreatic juices that breaks down protein molecules into amino acids
Pepsin
Enzyme found in acidic stomach environment functioning to digest protein molecules
Bile
Produced by the liver to mechanically increase the surface area of fat by breaking it into small droplets
Lock and key hypothesis
The idea that enzymes are specifically shaped to fit only one type of substrate
Enzyme-Substrate complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecules
cellular respiration
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.
photosynthesis
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy. Carbon dioxide + water ----> glucose + oxygen