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Ratified 1868-Former slaves became citizens

14th amendment

1865-Banned slavery in America

13th amendment

Freed all slaves in states that were rebelling against the Union

Emancipation Proclamation


Civil war and Reconstruction


The Gilded age

1890-1920 (fixing problems)

TheProgressive era

1890-1920 (world expansion)


Preference for native born Americans & a hatred of immigrants


Religious freedom; political persecution; poverty and hostility; poor working conditions; low wages; ;isolationism; ghettos were issues having to do with this


Individual state can declare a federal law null & void

Nullification theory

Forced removal of Native Americans to lands west of the Mississippi River

Indian Removal Act

Idea that America was meant to stretch from coast to coast

Manifest Destiny

Increased the need for slave labor

Cotton Gin

Stated that no more European colonization would be tolerated in the Western

Monroe Doctrine

Connected the Atlantic Ocean to the Midwest

Erie Canal

Anger over the violation of American neutral rights such as Impressment led to the

War of 1812

1803-Bought from France

Doubled the size of the U.S., Louisiana Territory

Foundation of the government used today

U.S. Constitution

1689- Changed England's government from absolute monarchy to a Constitutional monarchy

English Bill of Rights

1215-English agreement b/w its nobles & king guaranteeing certain rights

Magna Carta

Government by popularly elected representatives


power is shared between the federal government & the state


System where each branch of government has the ability to limit the power of the other branches to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful

Checks and Balances

Government subject to the will of the people

Popular Sovereignty

Government only has the powers the Constitution gives to it

Limited Government

1st of the ten Bill of Rights

Freedom of Speech, Religion , Press ,etc

Primary author of the Declaration of Independence

Thomas Jefferson

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