the scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in a social context.
an emphasis on how both an individual's personality and environmental characteristics influence behavior.
the study of how people perceive, remember, and interpret information about themselves and others.
a subfield of psychology that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior
a system of enduring meanings, beliefs, values, assumptions, institutions, and practices shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
research whose goal is to increase the understanding of human behavior, often by testing hypotheses based on a theory
research whose goals are to enlarge the understanding of naturally occurring events and to find solutions to practical problems
the extent to which the measures used in a study measure the variables they were designed to measure and the manipulations in an experiment maipulate the variables designed to manipulate.
bogus pipeline technique
a procedure in which research participants are (falsely) led to believe that their responses will be verified by an infallible lie-detector
a method of selecting participants for a study so that everyone in a population has an equal chance of being in the study
research designed to measure the associatin between variables that are not manipulated by the researcher
a statistical measure of the strength and direction of the association between two variables
a form of research that can demonstrate causal relationships because (1) the experimenter has control over the events that occur and (2) participants are randomly assigned to conditions
a method of assigning participants to the various conditions of the experiment so that each participant in the experiment has an equal chance of being in any of the conditions
in an experiment, a factor that experimenters manipulate to see if it affects the dependent variable
in an experiment, a factor that experimenters measure to see if it is affected by the independent variable
a variable that characterizes pre-existing differences among the participants in the study
the degree to which there can be reasonable certainty that the independent variables in the experiment caused the effects obtained on the dependent variables
experimenter expectancy effects
the effects produced when an experimenter's expectations about the results of an experiment affect his or her behavior toward a participant and thereby influence the participant's responses.
the degree to which there can be reasonable confidence that the results of a study would be obtained for other people and in other situations
the degree to which the experimental situation resembles places and events in the real world
the degree to which experimental procedures are involving to participants and lead them to behave naturally and spontaneously
accomplice of an experimenter who, in dealing with the real participants in an experiment, acts as if he or she is also a participant
a set of statistical procedures used to review a body of evidence by combining the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects
an individual's deliberate, voluntary decision to participate in research, based on the researcher's description of what will be required during such participation
a disclosure, made to participants after research procedures are completed, in which the researcher explains the purpose of the research, attempts to resolve any negative feelings, and emphasizes the scientific contribution made by the participants' involvement
a belief people hold about themselves that guides the processing of self-relevant information
the theory that when internal cues are difficult to interpret, people gain self-insight by observing their own behavior
facial feedback hypothesis
the hypothesis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion
the tendency for intrinsic motivation to diminish for ativities that have become associated with reward or other extrinsic factors
social comparison theory
the theory that people evaluate their own abilities and opinions by comparing themselves to others
two-factor theory of emotion
the theory that the experience of emotion is based on two factors: physiological arousal and a cognitive interpretation of that arousal.
an Eastern system of thought that accepts the coexistence of contradictory characteristics within a single person
an affective component of the self, consisting of a person's positive and negative self-evaluations
Terror Management Theory
The theory that humans cope with the fear of their own death by constructive worldviews that help to preserve their self-esteem
the theory that self-focused attention leads people to notice self-discrepancies, thereby motivating either an escape from self-awareness or a change in behavior
a personality characteristic of individuals who are introspective, often attending to their own inner states
a personality characteristic of individuals who focus on themselves s social objects, as seen by others
behaviors designed to sabotage one's own performance in order to provide a subsequent excuse for failure
downward social comparison
the defensive tendency ti compare ourselves to others who are worse off than we are
the tendency to change behavior in response to the self-presentation concerns of the situation
the process by which people attribute humanlike mental states to various animate and inanimate objects, including other people
behavior that reveals a person's feelings without words, through facial expressions, body language, and vocal cues
attribution to internal characteristics of an actor, such as ability, personality, mood, or effort.
attribution to factors external to an actor, such as the task, other people, or luck
a principle of attribution theory that holds that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when the behavior occurs and are absent when it does not
the tendency to estimate the likelihood that an event will occur by how easily instances of it come to mind
the tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others share their opinions, attributes, and behaviors
the finding that people are relatively insensitive to consensus information presented in the form of numerical base rates
the tendency to imagine alternative events or outcomes that might have occurred but did not
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to focus on the role of personal causes and underestimate the impact of situations on other people's behavior
belief in a just world
the belief that individuals get what they deserve in life, an orientation that leads people to disparage victims
the process of integrating information about a person to form a coherent impression
information integration theory
the theory that impressions are based on (1) perceiver dispositions; and (2) a weighted average of a target person's traits
the tendency for recently used or perceived words or ideas to come to mind easily and influence the interpretation of new information
implicit personality theory
a network of assumptions people make about the relationship among traits and behaviors
the tendency for information presented early in a sequence to have more impact on impressions than information presented later
need for closure
the desire to reduce cognitive uncertainty, which heightens the importance of first impressions
the tendency to seek, interpret, and create information that verifies existing beliefs
the process by which one's expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations
systematic collection of data through observation of organisms in their natural environment
- a tendency to explain our successes in terms of stable, internal factors such as our skills and traits and our failures in terms external, unstable factors. Generally, external, unstable factors are circumstances over which we have no control.
explain our own behavior in terms of external causes but the behavior of others in terms of internal causes
Nature of the Beliefs
Whether expectations are assumptions which are accepted without challenge or whether they are hypotheses which are subject to test.
Consequences of Beliefs
Whether expectations affect behavior currently or how behavior is remembered.
A person who "...suffers as a result of ruthless design or incidentally or accidentally". Suffering is generally the result of physical and/or psychological loss
Characterological self blame
Attributing responsibility for the negative event to dispositional characteristics. Characterological attributions undermine perceptions of control and may lead to helplessness.
Behavioral self blame
Attributing responsibility for the negative event to specific behaviors in which the individual did or did not engage. Behavioral self-blame can facilitate coping by identifying specific behaviors, under the control of the victim, which can be changed to avoid future victimization.