Final Exam Review: ELA Terminology
Terms in this set (70)
A category of literature. The main literary types are fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and drama.
tells a story
literature in the form of prose, especially short stories and novels, that describes imaginary events and people.
prose writing that is based on facts, real events, and real people, such as biography or history.
A long fictional narrative written in prose, usually having many characters and a plot.
a story with a fully developed theme but significantly shorter and less elaborate than a novel
a story acted out live, using dialogue and action
A piece of prose writing, usually short, that deals with a subject in a limited way and expresses a particular point of view.
a history of a person's life written or told by that person.
a written or printed communication addressed to a person or group
a talk or public address. The purpose of a speech may be to entertain, explain, persuade, or inspire.
an account of someone's life written by someone else
a type of literature that expresses ideas, feelings, or tells a story in a specific form (usually using lines and stanzas)
sequence of events in a story
A narrative device, often used at the beginning of a work that provides necessary background information about the characters and their circumstances.
A struggle between two opposing forces
Events leading up to the climax
A decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot.
Events after the climax, leading to the resolution
End of the story where loose ends are tied up
a person or animal portrayed in a literary work.
A method an author uses to let readers know more about the characters and their personal traits.
the process by which the personality of a fictitious character is revealed through the character's speech, actions, appearance, etc.
The author directly states a character's traits
Main character in a story
A character or force in conflict with the main character
Less important characters in the story; they interact with the main character and help to move the plot along.
a pair of characters, events, settings, or other literary elements which are set up in artistic contrast to one another in order to highlight their significant differences
One dimensional character with only one or two character traits
has more dimensions to their personalities---they are complex, just a real people are.
A character who grows, learns, or changes as a result of the story's action
A character that does not change from the beginning of the story to the end
tools and techniques authors use in their writing
Description that appeals to the senses (sight, sound, smell, touch, taste)
A comparison using "like" or "as"
A comparison without using like or as
A writer's attitude toward his or her subject matter revealed through diction, figurative language, and organization on the sentence and global levels.
Feeling or atmosphere that a writer creates for the reader;
How the author intends reader to feel while reading.
Repetition of consonant sounds at the beginning of words
Repeated use of sounds, words, or ideas for effect and emphasis
A direct or indirect reference to something which is presumably commonly known, such as an event, book, myth, place, or work of art. Allusions can be historical, literary, religious, topical, or mythical. There are many more possibilities, and a work may simultaneously use multiple layers of allusion.
A figure of speech using deliberate exaggeration or overstatement.
A figure of speech in which the author presents or describes concepts, animals, or inanimate objects by endowing them with human attributes or emotions. Personification is used to make these abstractions, animals, or objects appear more vivid to the reader.
A writer's or speaker's choice of words
A scene that interrupts the normal chronological sequence of events in a story to depict something that happened at an earlier time
Conversation between characters
A struggle between opposing forces
A contrast or discrepancy between what is stated and what is really meant, or between what is expected to happen and what actually does happen.
The use of certain marks to clarify meaning of written material by grouping words grammatically into sentences and clauses and phrases (period, comma, semi-colon, colon, dash)
Generally, anything that represents itself and stands for something else. Usually it is something concrete -- such as an object, action, character, or scene - that represents something more abstract.
A feeling of curiosity or uncertainty about the outcome of events in a literary work.
point of view
In literature, the perspective from which a story is told.
A narrative device that hints at coming events; often builds suspense or anxiety in the reader.
Writing or speech that is not intended to carry literal meaning and is usually meant to be imaginative and vivid
The time and place in which a story unfolds.
A message about life or human nature that the writer shares with the reader. In many cases, readers must infer what the writer's message is.
From the Greek for "orator," this term describes the principles governing the art of writing effectively, eloquently, and persuasively.
An arguable statement, which may be a claim of fact, value, or policy.
Related point that reinforces the Central Claim
Facts, statistics, examples, and comparisons that show why a claim should be believed.
the connections between evidence and claims
Appeal to logic
Ethical appeal; One of the fundamental strategies of argumentation identified by Aristotle. Ethos is basically an appeal to credibility. The writer is seeking to convince you that he or she has the background, history, skills, and/or expertise to speak on the issue.
one that does not expect an explicit answer. It is used to pose an idea to be considered by the speaker or audience.
A similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them. An analogy can explain something unfamiliar by associating it with or pointing out its similarity to something more familiar.
writing that explains or informs
writing that attempts to convince the reader or listener to adopt a particular opinion or course of action
the composition of precise claims about a topic, including relevant and sufficient evidence and valid reasoning.
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