Ch 12 IDs - Stirling
Terms in this set (72)
19th Century Swiss historian-"The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy"- who portrayed the 14th and 15th centuries in Italy as the birthplace of the modern world. He saw the revival of antiquity, the perfecting of the individual, and secularism as its features. (He over-stated the secularism during the Renaissance, missing the continuity of religious fervor.)
a confederacy of North German coastal towns into a commercial and military association.
House of Medici
Banking giants of Europe during the 15th century, and held many other commercial interests. The Medici were able to extend their economic power into political power during the Renaissance. (Cosomo and Lorenzo Medici, Pope Leo X.) Their patronage of the arts elevated Florence (and later Rome) as the cultural centers of the Renaissance)
First Estate: The clergy: believed people should be guided to spiritual ends.
Second Estate: The nobility: provided security in return for powers and privileges. Also known as the aristocracy-- they would largely dominate society during the Renaissance as they had in the Middle Ages.
Third Estate: The peasants: the peasants and inhabitants of towns and cities. Western Europe saw the elimination of serfdom during the Renaissance.
Emphasis and interest in the unique traits and potential of each person. The belief that each person is capable of individual progress.
An intellectual movement in the Renaissance where writers and intellectuals became more focused on the material and worldly things, and less focused on spiritual and religious things.
An intellectual movement in Renaissance Italy that sought to re-discover and study Greek and Roman classics, and classical disciplines like rhetoric, Latin, history, and poetry.
father of humanism, early Renaissance writer who distinguished Middle Ages as dark, inglorious, and called for classical learning. Wrote in a personal style, with an individual voice.
An intellectual movement of the Italian Renaissance that suggested that humanist intellectual study comes with a civic responsibility. (Bruni is an example, wrote a biography of Cicero)
A humanist Florentine patriot, and chancellor of the city, wrote a biography of Cicero titled 'The New Cicero'. Exalted the study and learning of greek literature and orators.
Author of "On The False Donation of Constantine" in which he proved that a papal document was a forgery. Also author of "On Pleasure"—the highest good is pleasure morally obtained, which was an example of secularism in the Renaissance
Cosimo de' Medici(1434-1464)
Took control of the small merchant Oligarchy of Florence and dominated the city at a time when Florence was the center of the cultural Renaissance. His patronage of artists helped propel the artistic innovations of the Renaissance.
One of the most prominent magi in the late 15th century, Ficino took an avid interest in Hermetic philosophy accepting it as the science of the Divine.
A revival of Platonic philosophy from the third century, associated with Platonists; associated with Marsilio Ficino, who attempted to synthesize Christianity and Platonism.
The chain of being= plants>>>beasts>>>man>>>God.
An intellectual movement beginning in the 15th century that taught that divinity is embodied in all aspects of nature (Pantheism); it included works on alchemy and magic as well as theology and philosophy.
A doctrine that sees God in all aspects of Nature, and equates God with the universe.
Pico della Mirandola(1463-1494)
Author of one of the most famous pieces of writing during the Renaissance- 'Oration on the Dignity of Man' claiming that man could attain divinity through the pursuit of humanistic education, or conversely could remain beast or animal-like. (Think unlimited potential of Man.)
Vittorino da Feltre(1378-1446)
Founded one of the most famous schools in 1423 at Mantua basing his educational system on the ideas of classical authors and stressed liberal arts and humanistic education. (The first 'modern' educator, treating wealthy students and poor students equally, applying strategies fitted to the individual student.)
The Renaissance view of the value of the liberal studies was most strongly influenced by his treatise on education called 'Concerning Character'. (liberal studies education as the key to true freedom) [Think YOU, right NOW]
seen as the key to true freedom, enabling individuals to reach their full potential through a study of all academic subjects, including art, music, and physical education
Defended the ability of women to pursue scholarly pursuits and was one of the few women to receive a Renaissance education. Women generally were only allowed to study religion and were shunned from study rhetoric and math.
"Renaissance Man" or universal man
The ideal man of the Renaissance was well educated in the language of both Greek and Latin as well as musical studies, physical fitness, and possessed great artistic abilities. [We've decided as a group that Alex Castenada is exactly this]
Renaissance humanist historian and author of 'History of Italy' and 'History of Florence.' His work represents the beginning of "modern analytical historiography"- using chronology and periodization to study history.
Johannes Gutenberg and new printing press
The development of printing from movable type was a gradual process that culminated between 1445 and 1450; Gutenberg played an important role in bringing the process to completion. Gutenberg's bible was the first true book in the West produced from movable type.
An important forerunner of Italian Renaissance painting. Painted in such a way that his figures seemed to be 3 dimensional, and included the depiction of human emotion.
Masaccio's frescos in the Brancacci Chapel has long been regarded as the first masterpiece of Early Renaissance art- giving him the title of "Father of Humanism in Painting". Used mathematical perspective in Holy Trinity painting.
Renaissance artist who used everyday items as mere stage props to show off his mastery of the laws of perspective.
Lorenzo the Magnificent
Leader of Florence during the last decades of the 15th century when a new sense of invention emerged in Florence especially in the circle of artists and scholars who formed part of his court.(Donatello, Botticelli, Brunelleschi were part of it)
Renaissance artist whose interest in Greek and Roman mythology was well reflected in his most famous works 'Primavera' and 'The Birth of Venus'.
Donato di Donatello and David(1386-1466)
Spent time in Rome studying and copying the statues of antiquity. Among his numerous works, was a statue of David which is the first known live size free standing bronze nude in European art since antiquity. With the severed head of the giant Golaith beneath David's feet, his statue celebrated Florentine heroism in the triumph of the Florentines over the Milanese in 1428.
Filippo Brunelleschi and the Duomo and Church of San Lorenz(1377-1446)
Friend of Donatello's who accompanied him to Rome where he drew much inspiration from the architectural monuments of Roman antiquity, and when he returned to Florence he poured his new insights into the creation of a new architecture. His first project involved the challenge of building a dome for the unfinished cathedral of Florence (the Duomo).
Portraits painted by Renaissance artists, usually of members of courts, reflecting both secularism and individualism in the Renaissance.
The final stage of Renaissance art which flourished between 1480 and 1520, including the work of Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, and Bramante.
Leonardo da Vinci
One of the High Renaissance artists who painted The Last Supper, a portrait of Jesus and his 12 disciples as well as the Mona Lisa. He also composed various stretches that demonstrated his genius and exemplify him as a Renaissance Man.
High Renaissance artist who at age 25 was already regarded as one of Italy's finest painters. He is well known for his frescoes in the Vatican Palace; his School of Athens reveals a world of balance, harmony, and order while celebrating the classical age. He also received early fame for his artistic depictions of the Madonna. [know this people]
High Renaissance artist who attempted to tell the story of the fall of man by depicting 9 scenes from the biblical book of Genesis and painted these scenes in the famous Sistine Chapel. Also, well known are statues: David, Pieta, Moses.
Donato Bramante (1444-1514)
High Renaissance architect who designed a small temple on the site of Saint Peter's martyrdom with the creation of The Tempietto, or little temple, with its capital Doric columns surrounding its sanctuary enclosed by a dome, summarized the architectural ideals of the High Renaissance and reflect the Renaissance "rebirth" of the classical age..
Funded art of the Renaissance (papacy, Medicis) and appeared in the corners of sacred pictures and monumental tombs and portrait statues honoring many of Florence's prominent citizens.
Transformation of the artist in 15th century
At the end of the 15th century a transformation in the position of the artist occurred. Artists like Leonardo, Raphael, and Michelangelo were seen as artistic geniuses and heroes. (the rock stars of their time, or maybe hip hop stars of their time?)
Northern Artistic Renaissance
Art movement in Northwestern Europe which used more oil paint and brighter colors to stand out in darker cathedrals, and less concern for mathematical or linear perspective. (Less secular than the Italians)
Leaders of bands of mercenary soldiers in Renaissance Italy who sold their services to the highest bidder. (without a loyalty to the state, they could switch sides (Sforza in Milan)
Mercenary leader (condottieri) who conquered the city of Milan and centralized its power.
Duchy of Milan
The Italian city-state that was most closely tied to trading interests in central Europe. Francesco Sforza seized power in the 1450s, and because of its strategic central location disputes over its control led to invasion by foreign armies and the ultimate end of the Renaissance.
Republic of Venice
A republic in name only. Ruled by a doge chosen by wealthy merchant families, known as the 'serene republic' for its stability throughout the era.
Republic of Florence
A city-state that was centered on the city of Florence. The Medici faction gained control of the city in 1434 and it became the cultural center of the Renaissance. The richest of the city-states, and for a time was controlled by Savanarola before he was bar-b-qued. (that means burned at the stake students) (alive, that is) :)
a political dynasty, banking family and later royal house that first began to gather prominence under Cosimo de' Medici in the Republic of Florence during the late 14th century. The bank was the largest in Europe during the 15th century.
Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498)
was an Italian Dominican priest and leader of Florence from 1494 until his execution in 1498. He was known for his book burning in the Bonfire of the Vanities, destruction of what he considered immoral and pagan art, and hostility to the Renaissance. He vehemently preached against the moral corruption of the clergy and the secular forces of art and philosophy during the Renaissance.
States that were under the political control of the Popes, papal resident in Avignon and the great schism had enabled individual cities and territories, such as Urbino, Bologna, and Ferrara, to become independent of papal authority.
Kingdom of Naples
the remainder of the old Kingdom of Sicily after secession of the island of Sicily as a result of the Sicilian Vespers rebellion of 1282. During much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Aragonese/Spanish dynasties. (Contested by whom? know this please)
Peace of Lodi (1454)
A treaty signed by the five major city-states of Italy during the Renaissance to try and achieve a balance of power on the peninsula. It brought peace to Italy for nearly 40 years, but eventually led to Italy becoming a battleground between the Habsburgs and Valois monarchies.
Niccolo Machiavelli and The Prince
a political treatise written in 1513 urging princes to put aside morality and rule secularly in the interests of the state. Machiavelli claimed it was better to be feared than loved, if one could not do both. He also said a ruler must be both a fox and a lion and gave a pessimistic view of man, saying they are selfish, fickle, and brutish. (He disconnected morality and politics)
The governments of France, England, And Spain at the end of the 15th century, whose rulers succeeded in reestablishing or extending centralized royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and insisting on the loyalty of all people living in their territories.
Charles VII (1422-1461)
French monarch who represented the "new monarchy" concept as he established a royal army composed of cavalry archers. Received the right to levy the taille, an annual direct tax usually on land or property, which greatly improved revenues of the state and was used to build a strong military.
Louis XI the Spider
continued the development of a French territorial state. (Called the Spider because of his wily and devious ways.) Another French monarch exemplified the "new monarchies" of the Renaissance.
War of the Roses & Bosworth Field
The Battle of Bosworth Field was the concluding battle of the Wars of the Roses, the civil war between the House of Lancaster and the House of York that raged across England in the latter half of the 15th century. Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle, allowing the Tudor line to begin their rule.
the first Tudor king, he worked to reduce internal dissension and establish a strong monarchical government, by bringing stability, lowering taxes, and avoiding war through diplomacy. He also arranged alliances by marrying his son into the Spanish line.
Ferdinand and Isabella
The title of the "Catholic King and Queen" was bestowed on them by the Pope Alexander VI. Their marriage united both Aragon and Castile and their Spanish Inquisition brought Spain under religious uniformity—another example of the "new monarchies" of Renaissance Europe. (expelled Jews, forced 'conversion' into "New" Christians, the Reconquista upon Muslim areas.)
In Spain, the reconquest of Muslim lands by Christian rulers and their armies.
Iberian Jews and Muslims who converted to Roman Catholicism, and their known baptized descendants. The term was introduced by the Old Christians of Iberia who wanted to distinguish themselves from the converts. (because most of them were 'faking it' to stay alive!)
a tribunal established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile. It was intended to maintain Catholic orthodoxy in their kingdoms, and to replace the Medieval Inquisition which was under Papal control. (effort toward religious uniformity within a new monarchy)
The ruling family of the Holy Roman Empire from 1440 until its dissolution in 1806.
Charles V (ruled from
Habsburg and Holy Roman Emperor as well as King of Spain, through marriage and deaths in his family. He will be consumed with fighting the Valois monarchs of France in the west and the Turks in the east. His troops also sacked Rome in 1527- signaling the end of the Renaissance.
Ivan III (1462-1505)
annexed other Russian principalities and took advantage of dissension among the Mongols to throw off their yoke by 1480, beginning the centralization process in Russia.
Author of "The Courtier" which became a very popular handbook of etiquette for members of European courts, describing the need for education, artistic talent, modesty, character, and manners best suited for both males (nobleman) and females (or a Lady) of the court.
Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?
Revival in trade due to its geographical location.
Surrounding by the relics of the classical age (Rome)
Boom in economy, due to trade and woolen industry- unseen in the middle to high middle ages.
Who was immediately impacted by the Renaissance?
A small elite group- aristocracy, wealthy patrons, intellectuals, and artists. The masses were too preoccupied with daily life to be concerned with art and humanistic education.
Five Major City-States of Italy
During the Renaissance, Italy was dominated by five major regional powers, or city-states: Milan, Florence, Venice, Papal States, Naples.
A series of wars between the ruling family line of the Holy Roman Empire/Spain (Habsburgs) and the ruling line of France (Valois). Italy would become a battleground between the French and Spanish.
Classic Age and Middle Ages
Classic Age refers to the Greek and Roman civilizations, while the "Middle Ages" refers to the period between the Classic Age and the "Renaissance"-- or "rebirth" of the Classic Age- as suggested by Petrarch and Jacob Burckhardt.
Italian Renaissance Art Characteristics
90% of paintings still dealt with religious themes, emphasis was on experimenting and mastering perspective and anatomical accuracy, or more focus on realistic portrayal of depth and human qualities.
Hundred Years' War
Period of intermittent wars between England and France that left England with economic problems which temporarily empowered nobles and led to civil war, while strengthening the French king's control of the crown.
The former Eastern Roman Empire which was centered at Constantinople until its fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453.