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MTEL General Curriculum Part 8
Terms in this set (206)
refers to water movement on, above, and in Earth
water can be in any one of its three states during different phases of the cycle
What are the processes that are involved in the hydrologic cycle?
occurs when condensed water vapor falls to earth
rain, fog drip, and various forms of snow, hail, and sleet
occurs when precipitation lands on plant foliage instead of falling to the ground and evaporating
runoff produced by melting snow
occurs when water flows from the surface into the ground
refers to water that flows underground
occurs when water in a liquid state changes to a gas
occurs when water is in a solid state and changes to water vapor without going through a liquid phase
movement of water through the atmosphere
occurs when water vapor changes to liquid water
occurs when water vapor is released from plants into the air
What is a salty body of water and has a mass of 1.4 x 1024 grams?
How can ocean distances be measured?
latitude, longitude, degrees, meters, miles, and nautical miles
How much of the Earth's surface does the ocean cover?
What is the oceans greatest depth?
Challenger Deep in the Marina Trench
How are the depths of the ocean mapped?
By echo sounders and satellite altimeter systems
Echo sounders emit a sound pulse from the surface and record the time it takes to turn
Satellite altimeters provide better maps
What does the atmosphere consist of?
traces of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases, dust particles, and chemicals from Earth
When does it become difficult to breathe?
about 3km above sea level
What is the lowest layer of the atmosphere?
troposphere (thickness varies at poles and the equator)
Where does the most weather occur?
What comes after the troposphere?
What is the coldest layer of the atmosphere?
What layer of the atmosphere is where the meteors tend to ablate?
Where does the International Space Station Orbit?
What is the outermost layer of the atmosphere?
exosphere (contains mainly hydrogen and helium)
What are the layers of the atmosphere?
What is between each of the layers of the atmosphere?
a pause- transitional layer
Where is the energy from Earth's surface transferred to?
Does temperature decrease or increase with altitude?
Does the stratosphere's temperature increase or decrease with altitude?
How are clouds classified?
according to the altitude of their base above Earth's surface
What are the types of clouds?
cirrus, cirrocumulus, cirrostratus, altocumulus, altostratus, stratocumulus, nimbostratus, cumulus, cumulonimus, stratus
small, pillow-like puffs that often appear in rows
thin, sheetlike clouds that often cover the entire sky
gray-white clouds that consist of liquid water
grayish or blue-gray clouds that span the sky
gray and fog-like clouds consisting of water droplets that take up the whole sky
low-lying, lumpy gray clouds
dark gray clouds with uneven bases that indicate rain or snow
Cumulus and Cumulonimbus
capable of great vertical growth, and start at a wide range of altitudes
scientific study of celestial objects and their positions, movements, and structures
does not refer to the Earth in particular, but does include its motions as it moves through space
also includes Sun, Moon, Planets, satellites, meteors, comets, stars, galaxies, and the universe and other space phenomena
Greek Translation of Astronomy
laws of the stars
organized into stars, galaxies, clusters, of galaxies, superclusters, and the Great Wall of galaxies
consist of stars with some planetary systems
study of the universe
Interstellar Medium (ISM)
gas and dust in the interstellar space between a galaxy's stars
planetary system of objects that exist in an ecliptic plane
objects that orbit are bound by gravity to a star called the Sun.
What orbits a sun?
planets, dwarf planets, moons, asteroids, meteoroids, cosmic dust, and comets
What are the 8 planets?
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
center of the solar system
composed of 70% hydrogen, 28% Helium, 2% metals
represented 99.8% of mass in the solar system
closest to the sun and the smallest planet
orbits sun every 88 days
no satellites or atmosphere
has a moon-like surface with craters, appears bright, and is dense and rocky with a large iron core
second planet from the sun
orbits sun every 225 days
very bright, similar to earth in size, gravity, and bulk composition
dense atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and some sulfur and exhibits signs of volcanism
lighting and thunder have been recorded on Venus's surface
has runaway greenhouse effect
third planet from the sun
orbits sun every 365 days
71% is salt-water oceans
Earth is rocky, has an atmosphere composed mainly of oxygen and nitrogen, has one moon, and supports millions of species. It contains the only known life in the solar system
supports millions of species and contains the only
fourth planet from the sun
reddish due to iron oxide on the surface, has a thin atmosphere, has a rotational period similar to Earth's, has seasonal cycles
volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps
Has the tallest mountain that is known in the universe
largest canyon and possibly the largest impact crater
fifth planet from the sun
largest planet in the solar system
consists of mainly hydrogen and 25% helium
fast rotation and has clouds in the tropopause composed of ammonia crystals that are arranged into bands sub-divided into lighter hued zones and darker belts causing storms and turbulence.
Wind speeds up to 100m/s
planetary ring, 63 moons, and a Great Red Spot
Great Red Spot
sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system
composed of hydrogen and some helium and trace elements
small core of rock and ice, a thick layer of metallic hydrogen, a gaseous outer layer, wind speeds of up to 1,800km/hr, system of rings, 61 moons
seventh planet from the Sun
atmosphere is composed mainly of hydrogen and helium, and also contains water, ammonia, methane, and traces of hydrocarbons
minimum temperature of 49 K, coldest atmosphere, ring system, magnetosphere, and 13 moons
eighth planet from the sun
third largest mass
12 moons, atmosphere similar to Uranus, a Great Dark Spot, and the strongest sustained winds of any planet (2,100 km/hr)
cold and fragmented ring system
The distance from the Earth to the Sun in AU
How long does it take for the moon to go through all of its phases?
Phases of the moon
What is the main difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells have a nucleus and prokaryotic cells do not
Eukaryotic cells are more complex
have membrane bound organellles that perform various functions and contribute to the complexity of cells
DNA is mostly contained in chromosomes in the nucleus, also some in mitochrondria and chloroplasts
divide by mitosis and are diploid
do not contain membrane-bound organelles, the generic material is not contained within a membrane-bound nucleus, it aggregates in the cytoplasm in a nucleoid
usually divide by binary fission and are haploid
include plasmids, ribosomes, cytoplasm, cytoskeleton, granules of nutritional substances, a plasma membrane, flagella, and a few others
single celled organisms
How are animal and plant cells similar?
structure (both eukaryotic)
have cell membranes, cytoplasm, vacuoles, and other structures
both duplicate genetic material, separate it, and then divide in half to reproduce
round structure that controls the activities of the cell and contains chromosomes
What is the main difference between plant and animal cells?
plant cells have chloroplast that are used during photosynthesis
plant cells have 1 large vacuole and animal cells have many smaller ones
plant cells have cell walls
conversion of sunlight into food
carbon dioxide and water are converted into glucose, and light is required
it is a form of cellular respiration
6 molecules of water and 6 molecules of carbon dioxide react to form one molecule of sugar and 6 molecules of oxygen
Which are larger? Plant cells or animal cells?
thick barriers consisting of protein and sugars
Microtubule Organizing Centers
make microtubules in plant cells
make microtubules in animal cells
process by which a cell reproduces, which involves cell growth, the duplication of genetic material, and cell division
Two ways cells can reproduce
the daughter cells is an exact replica of the parent cell
only happens in specialized reproductive cells called gametes
Stages of Mitosis
first step in mitosis
cell prepares for division by replicating its genetic and cytoplasmic material
further divided into G1, S, G2
second step in mitosis
chromatin thickens into chromosomes and the nuclear membrane begins to disintegrate
pairs of centrioles move to opposite sides of the cell and spindle fibers begin to form
mitotic spindle, formed from cytoskeleton parts, moves chromosomes around within the cell
third step in mitosis
spindle moves to the center of the cell and chromosome pairs align along the center of the spindle structure
fourth step in mitosis
Pairs of chromosomes, called sisters, begin to pull apart, and may bend. When they are separated, they are called daughter chromosomes. Grooves appear in the cell membrane.
fifth step in mitosis
spindle disintegrates, the nuclear membranes reform, and the chromosomes revert to chromatin.
In animal cells, the membrane is pinched
In plant cells, a new cell wall begins to form
sixth step in mitosis
the physical splitting of the cell (including the cytoplasm) into two cells.
Does meiosis have the same phases as mitosis?
yes, but they happen twice
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis in the first stage and the chromosomes cross over and genetic material is exchanged, and tetrads of four chromatids are formed
the nuclear membrane dissolves
homologous pairs of chromatids are separated and travel to separate terms
each new cell then goes through a second cell division
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis
the result is four daughter cells with different sets of chromosomes
the daughter cells are haploid
encourages genetic discovery
contain half the genetic material of the parent cell
consist of genes, and are single units of genetic information
made up of deoxyribonucleic acid
portion of DNA that identifies how traits are expressed and passed on in an organism
nucleic acid located in the cells nucleus and mitochondria
consists of nucleotides
involved in the biosynthesis of proteins
double helix structure
Rosalind Elsie Franklin
British scientist credited with taking the x-ray diffraction image in 1952 (this image helped Francis Crick and James Watson with their discovery)
consist of a five carbon sugar (pentose) a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
How are the bases attached in DNA?
hydrogen bonds, which are easily dismantled so replication can occur
each base is attached to a phosphate and to a sugar
Four Nitrogenous bases
Which bases pair together?
includes genes that are not expressed, such as recessive genes
visual manifestation of genes
determined genetic information and how genes have been affected by their environment
variation of a gene
refers to the location of a gene or alleles
Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment
Law of Segregation
two alleles that half of the total number of alleles are contributed by each parent organism
How many chromosomes do we have?
Law of Independent Assortment
assortment states that traits are passed on randomly and are not influenced by other traits
except for linked traits
illustrates how alleles combine from the contributing genes to form various phenotypes
used to predict the outcome from the parent alleles
How are gene traits represented?
in pairs with an upper case letter for the dominant trait and a lower case letter for the recessive trait
Where is there scientific evidence supporting the theory of evolution?
biogeography, comparative anatomy and embryology, the fossil record, and molecular evidence
studies the geographical distribution of animals and plants
evidence of evolution related to the are of biogeography includes species that are well developed for extreme environments
shows that species lived only for a short time period before becoming extint
show succession of plants and animals
existing species that have not changed much in morphology and similar to those in fossils
studies how species are similar in the embryonic stage, but become increasingly specialized and diverse as they age
still exist, but become nonfunctional
How is the rate of evolution affected?
variability of a population
a population can be increased by mutations, immigration, sexual reproduction, and size
increases the like likelihood of evolution
What can lead to decreased rates through variability?
natural selection, emigration, and smaller populations
theory developed by Darwin states that traits that help give a species a survival advantage are passed on to subsequent generations. Members of a species that do not have the advantageous trait die before they reproduce. Darwin's four principles are: from generation to generation, there are various individuals within a species; genes determine variations; more individuals are born than survive to muturation; and specific genes enable an organism to better survive
contrasted with punctuationism
idea that evolution proceeds at a steady pace and does not include sudden developments of new species or features from one generation to the next
this can be contrasted with gradualism
it is the idea in evolutionary biology that states that evolution involves long time periods of no change (stasis) accompanied by relatively brief periods of rapid change
What are the three types of evolution?
two species that become different over time
can be caused by one of the species adapting to a different environment
refers to two species that start out fairly different, but evolve to share many similar traits
refers to species that are not similar and do not become more or less similar over time
What mechanisms are involved in evolution?
descent (passing on genetic information), mutation, migration, natural selection, and genetic variation and drift
refers to a group of individuals that can mate and reproduce
Biological Species Concept (BSC)
states that a species is a community of individuals that can reproduce and have a niche in nature
French Naturalist who used the fossil record (paleontology) to compare the anatomies of extinct species and existing species to make conclusions about extinction. He believed in the catastrophism theory more strongly than the theory of evolution
French naturalist who believed in the idea of evolution and thought it was a natural occurrence influenced by the environment. He studied medicine and botany. Lamarch put forth a theory of evolution by inheritance of acquired characteristics. he theorized that organisms become more complex by moving up a ladder of progress.
British geologist who believed in geographical uniformatarianism, which can be contrasted with catastrophism
Charles Robert Darwin
English naturalist known for his belief that evolution occurred by natural selection. he believed that species descend from common ancestors
Alfred Russell Wallace
British naturalist who independently developed a theory of evolution by natural selection. He believed in the transmutation of species (that one species develops into another)
Organism Classification the 5 Kingdom Classification
King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup
What are the 5 Kingdoms?
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
a living thing
organism that is only one cell
one that consists of many cells
organisms that use photosynthesis
known as heterotrophs, eat or consume other organisms
consume dead or decaying substances
the study of fungi
characterized by cell walls that have chitin, a long chain polymer carbohydrate
evolved from a single ancestor
nonvascular mosses and liverworts
make their own food
plants that use seeds to reproduce
What are the major processes that plants use?
photosynthesis, transpiration, and respiration
evaporates water out of plants
utilization of food that was produced during photosynthesis
Two major systems in plants
shoot and root system
includes leaves, buds, and stems
is the component of the plant that is underground
refers to tissues that form the covering or outer layer of a plant
have a sexual reproduction phase that includes flowering
small plant that has started to develop but this development is paused
the embryo starts to grow again
What does the endosperm consist of?
proteins, carbohydrates, or fats (food source for embryo)
refers to the method of getting energy by eating food that has energy releasing substances
resembles a fluid filled ball that happens in animals that have a diploid embryo that goes through this
Taxonomy of Animals
involves grouping them into phyla according to body symmetry and plan, as well as the presence of or lack of segmentation
sponges, lack a coelom and get food as water flows through them, they are usually found in marine and sometimes in freshwater environments
members of this phylum are hydrozoa, jellyfish, and obelia. They have radial symmetry, sac-like bodies, and a polyp or medusa body plan. They are diolobastic
possessing both an ectoderm and an endoderm
flatworks. organs and bilateral symmetry. layers of tissue: ectoderm, a mesoderm, and endoderm
have a pseudocoelom, which means the coelom is not completely enclosed within mesoderm
classes include bivalia (organisms with two shells, such as clams, mussels, and oysters), gastropoda (snails and slugs), cephalopoda (octopus, squid, and chambered nautilus), Scaphopoda, amphineura, and monoplacophora
classes of oligochaeta (earthworms), polychaeta (clam worms), and hirudinea (leaches)
they have true coeloms enclosed within the mesoderm
segmented and have repeating units, and have a nerve trunk
phylum diverse and populous.
all types of environments
have external skeletons, jointed appendages, bilateral symmetry, and nerve cords
anuses that are formed from blastopores
members of this phylum have radial symmetry, are marine organisms, and have a water vascular system
homeostatic systems that are controlled from outside the body
Which systems help regulate body functions by responding to stimuli?
endocrine system and nervous system
regulate processes including growth, metabolism, reproduction, and fluid imbalance
usually end in -one
proteins or steroids
do not have a backbone
has a backbone
has two cavities Thoracic Cavity and the Abdominal Cavity
holds heart and lungs
holds digestive enzymes
consists of bones and joints
provides support for the body through its rigid structure, provides protection for internal organs, and works to make organisms motile
allows body to move and respond to its environment
brain, spinal cord, nerves
signaling system for intrabody communications among systems, responses to stimuli, and interaction within an environment
signals are electrochemical
includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, rectum, anal canal, teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and appendix
helps change food into a form that the body can process and use for energy and nutrients
food eliminated as solid waste
process can be mechanical and chemical
What is the primary source of energy that can be easily converted to glucose?
What do fats do?
process vitamins and store energy
What does fiber do?
regulate blood sugar levels, reduce heart disease, help food pass through the digestive system
What do proteins do?
used for protein biosynthesis through the diet
includes the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
involved in gas exchange, which occurs in the alveoli
heart, blood, and blood vessels
blood transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and carbon dioxide to the lungs
Integumentary System (skin)
includes hair, skill, nails, sense, receptors, sweat glands, and oil glands
sense organ, provides an exterior barrier against disease, regulates body temperature through perspiration, manufactures chemicals and hormones and provides a place for nerves from the nervous system and parts of the circulation system to travel through
Three Layers of Skin
thin, outermost, waterproof layer
located in the epidermis
contains sweat glands, oil glands, and hair follicles
has connective tissue, and also contains adipose tissue, nerves, arteries, and veins
includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
maintain amount of fluids in body
wastes from blood system and excess water are removed in urine
also removes solid waste
lymphatic system, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, and spleen
lymph fluid is moved throughout the body by lymph vessels that provide protection against disease
system protects body from external intrusions
protects against some cancer cells
Pituitary gland, pineal gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroids, thymus, adrenals, pancreas, ovaries, and testes.
controls systems and processes by secreting hormones into the blood system
secrete fluid into ducts
secrete hormones directly into the blood stream without the use of ducts
Prostaglandin (tissue hormones)
diffuses only a short distance from the tissue that created it, and influences nearby cells only
above each kidney
secretes some sex hormones as well as mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids involved in immune suppression and stress response
secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine (both elevate blood sugar, increase blood pressure, and accelerate heart rate)
Reproductive System (MALE)
testes, vas deferens, urethra, prostate, penis, scrotum
Reproductive System (FEMALE)
ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, uterus, vagina, vulva, mammary glands
What does sexual reproduction do?
provide genetic diversity as gametes from each parent contribute half the DNA to the zygote offspring
What are the three possible cycles of reproduction?
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