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28 terms

Notes - Intro to English Linguistics

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Prescriptive Rule
What SHOULD occur in a language as opposed to what actually does.
Descriptive Rule
What DOES occur in a language as opposed to what should.
Metathesis
When sound switch places in a word. "aks" to "ask".
Signifier
meaningful sting of sounds. "d-o-g".
Signified
The thing represented by the signifier. "The actual dog."
Grimm's Law and Sir William Jones
System of sound correspondences. (think cognates)
Phoneme
Smallest unit of sound. (distinguish meaning)
Allophones
Variants of a phoneme. (puck and cup)
consonants
block airflow
vowels
dont block airflow
labial
puh and buh words
minimal pairs
one is voiced and the other is not.
obstrucants
stops, fricatives, and fricates. (obstruction in your mouth)
Sonorant
Nasals, liquids, glides.
Tense vowels are long
...
Lax vowels are short
...
Great Vowel Shift
Around c. 1300
Allomorphs
/t/, /id/, /d/, /z/, /s/, /Iz/ (plurals)
will be /z/ if word ends in a vowel
/Iz/ if word ends in a sibilant (/ch/ or /dg/)
/s/ if noun ends in a voiceless sound.
Morphemes
Bound and free. bound have to be attached to a word (suffixes) and free are actual words/
Past Tense Marker
/d/, /t/, /Id/
Ablaut
Vowel variation. (sing, sang, sung.)
plural
/s/, /z/, /Iz/
Past Participle Ending
-en, -ed.
Indefinite Article
a, an
Zero plural
deer, sheep, fish (used to be fishes).
Closed class morphemes
free, but do not combine. (and, the, a)
Derivational Morphemes
A bound or free morpheme that forms a new word. (uptalk). Changes noun to a verb, etc. -ly, -age, -ness, a-, im-, in-.
Inflectional Morphemes
indicates something about a word's grammatical function such as number or tense. suffixes, plurals, conjugations, etc.