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8th Grade Review - Earth Systems, Structures & Processes (Water Unit)
Terms in this set (95)
solid, liquid, gas
Water is the only substance on Earth that occurs naturally as a ____, a____ and a ___.
Water is often referred to as the "________" because so many other substances dissolve in it
Water covers roughly ___% of the Earth's surface.
Most of Earth's water, roughly ___%, is not drinkable because it is saltwater.
The majority of freshwater, ___% exists in ice caps, glaciers and oceans
____% of freshwater is frozen, 23% is NOT frozen
Approximately ___% of freshwater is available to supply living organisms with what they need to survive
The availability of water varies with local ___ and allows humans to utilize water as a resource
The ocean is salty because of ___ ___ eroded from the Earth's crust and washed into the sea.
Solid and gaseous ejections from ___, contain suspended particles that are swept to the ocean from the land by onshore winds contribute to it being salty
___ deposited on the ocean floor contribute to it being salty
Salinity in the ocean is (increased/decreased) by evaporation or by freezing of sea ice
Salinity in the ocean is (increased/decreased) as a result of rainfall, runoff, or the melting of ice.
The average salinity of seawater is __ parts per thousand
Salinities are much (greater / less) than average in coastal waters, in the polar seas, and near the mouths of large rivers.
___ are recently-discovered features on the crest of oceanic ridges that release dissolved minterals into the oceans.
The super-heated water from the Hydrothermal vents brings large amounts of dissolved ___ with it.
Estimates of the amount of hydrothermal fluids now flowing from vents show that the entire volume of the oceans could seep through the oceanic crust in about 10 million years. Thus, this process has a very important effect on ____.
The ocean can hold and circulate more water, heat, and carbon dioxide than the __ although the components of Earth's climate are constantly exchanged.
Because the ocean can store so much ___, seasons occur later than they would and air above the ocean is warmed.
ocean / atomosphere
The ___ and the ___ work together to form complex weather phenomena like the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Nino.
Chemical cycles occuring between the ocean and the atmosphere also influence the climate by controlling the amount of ___ released into ecosystems and our environment.
Air ___ all over the world are regulated by the circulation of heat by the oceans.
The ocean stores heat in the upper 2 meters of the ___ zone.
Sea water has a very high __ and specific heat, so it can store vast quantities of energy in the form of heat.
The ocean can buffer changes in temperature by storing ___ and releasing ___. (Same word in both)
___ cools ocean water, which cools the atmosphere.
Equator / Poles
The evaporation cooling the ocean and atmosphere is most noticeable near the ___ and the effect decreases closer to the ___.
The ___ drives the entire water cycle and is responsible for its 2 major components: condensation & evaporation.
When the sun heats the surface of water, it evaporates and ends up in the atmosphere as ___ ____.
Water vapor cools and rises, becoming clouds which eventually condense into water ___.
Water ____ as rain, sleet, hail or snow.
Precipitation that falls to the ground becomes ___, which courses over the surface of the earth in streams.
Runoff can come from ___, which occurs when the sun and climate changes melt snow and ice.
Runoff can accumulate and freeze into snow caps or __.
The process of runoff going through the ground to become ground water is called ___.
___ is a measure of the ability of a rock or sediment to transmit water or other liquids.
Water does not pass through ___ materials.
soil / rock
water is stored in permeable ___ and ___ underground.
An __ is a large deposit of groundwater that can be extracted and used
Runoff makes its way back into lakes and oceans, where it is ___ by the sun.
A ___ ___ is the portion of land drained by a river and its tributaries.
The final destination of a river basin's water is an ____ or an ocean.
___-___ live on land that drains to a river or estuary or lake, and their actions on that land affect water quality and quantity far downstream.
How many river basins in North Carolina?
The __ of each river basin in North Carolina determines the area that it drains and whether that water flows into the Atlantic Ocean or the Gulf of Mexico.
The ocean is the largest ___ of water and of heat on Earth's surface. (Hint: place that stores or holds something)
The climate near the ocean is (milder/harsher) than the climate in the interior of continents
Ocean ___ are a source of large scale distribution of energy and resources o the Earth.
Estuaries are where fresh and salt water mix, producing variations in salinity and high ____ activity. (hint: life)
Estuaries trap __ and sediment that are carried from the land by rivers and from the ocean by tides.
tidal / river
Nutrients in an estuary are constantly mixed by __ action and ___ flow, making estuaries one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth.
Because estuarine waters are shallow (less than 30 feet deep in N.C.), __ penetrates to the bottom, promoting plant growth.
Many species adapt to the brackish conditions. Estuaries are good ____ as they provide and protect species to hatch and grow before migrating to the sea.
The largest Estuary in N.C. is __ __.
Estuaries help control __ and reduce flooding of the mainland.
___ buffer the impact of waves.
Plants and shellfish beds anchor the shore against ___.
Swamps and __ take the initial impact of high winds from the ocean, soak up heavy storm surges, and release extra water gradually into rivers and groundwaters.
Estuaries are a type of environmental ___ to separate pollutants out of the water with plants and animals.
___ ___ plants trap some of the chemicals and pathogens carried by rivers and move them into soils where they can be neutralized.
___ can filter 25 gallons of water per day as they eat and collect contaminants in their bodies.
Bacteria eat organic matter found in the sediment and in turn release ___ ____, hydrogen sulfate and methane into the atomosphere
___ can accumulate in estuaries causing many environmental and health problems.
Chemical pollution and ___ are great threats to the well-being of estuaries and oceans.
__ are scientists who divide he ocean into zones according to how far down sunlight penetrates.
___ are found only in sunlit zones of the ocean where photosynthesis can take place. Nearly all life in the ocean depends on these.
___ in the ocean are an important food source as well as an important source of atmospheric oxygen.
What are the most abundant plants in the ocean?
If a link in a food chain is depleted, the other consumers in the chain have alternate food sources due to complex __ ___.
What are an important force in creating ocean currents?
When warm surface water near coastal areas is blown offshore by winds, the cold water along the bottom of the ocean near the shore rises, carrying sediment and organic material to the surface. What is this process?
Upwelling brings more nutrients to the coastal waters, causing more phytoplankton, and thus more ocean organisms, so this is where approximately half the ___ in the world come from.
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide
What are the 3 main gases seawater has involved in it?
Marine plants depend on dissolved __ __ to perform photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis releases oxygen into the ocean water, which is used by ocean organisms for ___.
Respiration releases energy from stored ___ and produces carbon dioxide and water as byproducts.
Cold / warm
___ (cold/warm) water holds more gas than ___ (cold/warm) water.
low / high
Seawater with ___ (low/high) salinity holds more gas than (low/high) ___salinity.
Deep water, which has ___ (low / high) pressure, holds more gas than shallow water.
Some carbon dioxide dissolves as gases in the water, but some reacts with water to form carbonic __ or reacts with carbonates already in the water to form bicarbonates, which removes Carbon dioxide from water.
Many marine organisms use the bicarbonate to form __ carbonate shells, and after the organisms die, the bicarbonate is returned to the water.
As ___ levels of gas rises, levels of the same gases dissolved in the ocean water rises.
Biotic, mineral and energy resources, including food, and sources of travel, shipping and recreation, mining for minerals and drilling for crude oil all describe the Ocean as being the Earth's most valuable ____ resource.
Fish provide a valuable source of ___ for humans.
Various types of ___ ships are: container ships, tankers, crude oil ships, chemical ships, bulk carriers, cable layers, ferries, tugboats, barges, dredgers and more.
___ is the fastest growing division of the world economy and is responsible for more than 200 million jobs all over the world.
Tourism can have both, positive and negative effects on the Marine environment. Pollution causes ____ because it results in excessive algal bloom.
Eutrophication can lead to disease ___.
The human desire for diamonds, gold, silver, metal ores like manganese nodules in gravel started the ___ industry of the Ocean floor in the 1950's.
Mining for sands and gravels in the US protects the __ and reduces effects of erosion.
Mining the ocean can be devastating to natural habitats or ___.
Dredging or upwelling
What process pulls up the ocean floor and causes a cloud of sediment to rise up, interfering with photosynthetic processes of phytoplankton and other marine life, and can introduce previously benign heavy metals into the ocean food chain?
Drilling for __ extracts resources from the ocean.
Geologists locate potential oil wells beneath the ocean floor through the use of magnetic and __ surveys.
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