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Cell Structure and Function

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Plasma Membrane
selectively permeable, phospholipid bi-layer, the outer layer of a cell
Nucleus
controls the activities of the cell
Nuclear Envelope
protective layer surrounding the nucleus, selectively permeable
Chromatin
DNA, code for life
Nucleolus
site of ribosome production
Cytoplasm
the fluid in which all organelles are suspended
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
two types: smooth ER processes lipids (fatty acids) for energy; rough ER processes proteins, possesses ribosomes
Ribosomes
site where proteins are made
Golgi Body
collects and secretes protein
Vesicle
packaged protein, formed as a pinched off piece of a Golgi Body
Mitochondria
'power house' of the cell, site of cellular respiration
Chloroplast
only in plant cells, site of photosynthesis, contains chlorophyl, creates glucose
Lysosome
breaks down non-functioning organelles (digestive enzyme)
Peroxisome
only in animal cells, converts H2O2 into H2O + O
Microfilaments
part of the cytoskeleton, they connect the different sides of the cell membrane
Microtubules
radiate from centrioles, comprise the 'cyto-highway'
Centriole
only in animal cells, aid in the process of mitosis
Vacuole
in animal cell, storage site for food, minerals, and waste
Cell Wall
only in plant cells, an extra layer surrounding the cell that provides structure
Central Vacuole
in plant cell, this is huge, because the plant is not motile it is the storage site for everything
Eukaryotic
Cells that have a true nucleus (both animal and plant cells) (ex. non-bacterial cells)
Prokaryotic
Cells that lack a true nucleus (a membrane bound nucleus), these cells have nuclear material floating freely in the cytoplasm (ex. bacterial cells)