When Columbus landed in America, the chief reason that he thought he had landed in "_______" was his firm belief that he had sailed far enough westward to reach them.
By the Treaty of ___________ (1494), Spain had authority to exploit all of North and South America except Brazil.
In general, most Europeans considered the Native Americans to be contemptible _________.
Communal land owning
One source of problems between the Europeans and the Native Americans was the common European misunderstanding of the Native Americans' idea of ___________.
The king who brought the Protestant Reformation to England by declaring himself head of the English CHurch in order to divorce his first wife was __________.
joint stock company
The earliest British colonies were initially financed by _______.
A serious problem in the early years ________ was the lack of pioneering skills among the settlers.
Between 1606 and 1625, the London Company, which established the _________ Colony, sent out thousands of settlers, more than half of whom died.
Initially, the _______ Native Americans reacted to the Virginia colonists by helping them survive.
The eventual success of the VIrginia settlement depended largely upon the introduction of the cultivation of ______.
House of Burgesses
The governmental body which was the seed for the system of respresentative government in America was the ________.
The ________ left England primarily because they believed the Church of England was too corrupt to save.
The ____________ was an early example of the idea that a society should be based on a set of rules chosen by its members.
The first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Company was _________.
Rhode Island, distinguished for its religious freedom and rigid separation of church and state was founded by ________.
She was banished from Massachusetts for claiming that she regularly received divine insights.
The colony founded as a religious refuge for Catholics was ______.
The _________ believed in direct, mystical experience of religious truth.
The proprietor of the colony founded as a haven for Quakers was _______.
Part of the so-called "_____________" which was domesticated by many tribes to form a staple of their diet and which also contributed enormously to the success of the English colonies, was corn.
The "____________" was commonly used in the southern colonies and some of the middle colonies to award tracts of land to new arrivals in the colonies.
__________ servants agreed to work for a stated period in return for their transportation to America.
Slavery of blacks in the British colonies was firmly established by laws in Virginia and Maryland at least as early as ______.
The great staple of the _________ colonial economy was tobacco.
lot of human labor
The most accurate statement about tobacco during the seventeenth century is that it grew on seicleared land, but required a ________.
The primary _________ problem for Virginia in the late sevententh century was over production of tobacco.
Bacon's Rebellion occured in _________.
Throughout the colonial era, small-scale manufacturing the the _______ was almose nonexistent.
The few attacks on the institution of _________ during the colonial period were usually led by Quakers.
James Oglethorpe received a charter to establish ______, the final English colony, as a refuge for honest people imprisoned for debt.
The British government's primary concern in establishing Georgia was placing a buffer between South Carolina and _______.
mothers and wives
Colonial women generally, and New england women particularly, were seen by men as primarily ________ and _________.
The Puritans justified laws requiring church attendance and estbalishing the death penalty for blaspheming a _______ on the grounds that they were based on government's role as a civil covenant designed to police and maintain social order.
The main evidence presented against the accused witches in Salem Village was the raving testimony of ______.
In 1636 the Massachusetts General Court appropriated funds for the first college in America, which was later named _________.
The driving force of the colonial _________ economy became maritime trade and those engaged in it.
The New York printer whose trial for seditious libel became one of the most celebrated tests of freedom of the press in the history of journalism was _______.
The seventeenth-century economic theory which viewed colonies primarily as sources of raw materials is most accurately labed ______.
A fundamental goal of British mercantilism was to produce manufactured goods for _______ and limit imports of manufactured items.
Beginning in the 1650s, Parliament tried to prohibit foreign goods and vessels from colonial ports and to channel colonial raw materials to England through the _______ Acts.
The "________" principle in the Navigation Act of 1660 required that certain commodities like sugar, tobacco, and indigo could not be shipped outside the British Empire.
In practice, the British mercantile system worked so that the ____________ interests predominated over those of the colonies.
George Whitefield's greatest contribution to the ___________ was his ability to stir an audience emotionally by his oratory.
The Great Awakening tended to emphasize an emotional and _________ style of religion.
The most famous native-born revivalist of the Great Awakening was the intellectually brilliant author of sermons such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God." He was ________
The view that the universe is based on impersonal, scientific laws, which govern the behavior of all matter, animate and inanimate was basic to the _________.
America's most famous Enlightenment figure, inventor of the lightening rod and bifocals, organizer of a hospital and a circulating library, was _________.
Although forced to surrender in 1754 to French troops constructing Fort Duquesne, the young Virginian who emerged as a hero to fellow colonists was _______.
In 1763 the Ottawa chief, _____ led on last effort to drive the whites back across the Appalachians
In an effort to help support the increased cost of colonial administration, Parliament passed the ______ Act in 1764, placing tariffs on coffee, wines, and other major imports.
Americans were most alarmed by the Sugar Act of 1764 because it asserted ________ right to tax Americans for revenue purposes.
Illegal, often violent, resistance by the Sons of Liberty to the ________ may be seen as marking the start of the revolution.
lawyers and clergy
One reason that American protests against the Stamp Act were vehement was that it taxed influential and articulate groups such as _______ and ________.
The ________ was repealed in 1766 primarily because of the pressure from British merchants who had been hurt by the American boycott.
The American understanding of the word "__________" emphasized the specific written document spelling out of limiting the powers of government.
The militant Boston leader of resistane to the Tea Act and of the Boston "Tea Party" was ________.
In response to the Boston Tea Party, the British passed a series of laws, which, among other things, closed the port of Boston and strengthened the power of the governor of Massachusetts. IN the colonies these acts were known as the _________ Acts.
The most significant aspect of the Coercive Acts was that they indicated a change in British policy, from persuasion to _________.
British mercantile policy discouraged Americans from exporting woolen goods and _____.
The greatest source of trouble between the French in Canada and the British in New England was _______.
Under the Treaty of Paris (1763) ending the French and Indian War, _______ lost all her possessions on the mainland of North America.