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Arts and Humanities
MM World War II ALL (Study for Final) not on notecard
Terms in this set (189)
Hitler believed Germans were a superior race. The Aryans had blonde hair and blue eyes.
Hatred of the Jews. The Nazis blamed the Jews for all Germany's problems.
The Germans wanted living space - land and raw materials. They wanted to expand east, taking over Poland, Russia and Slavic lands.
Hitler agreed to an alliance with Mussolini so that he could expand without worrying about getting into a war with Italy. (Invasion of France)
An alliance of Germany, Italy and Japan.
The dictator who led the Soviet Union, Communist. Wanted to spread Communism westward.
Hitler wanted to expand to create Lebensraum. He took the Rhineland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Norway, Denmark, the Netherlands, Belgium, France.
Land in the west of Czechoslovakia. HItler lied and said Germans were being mistreated and so he wanted to take it over. At the Munich Conference Hitler was given the Sudetenland to appease him.
A meeting of Britain, France and Germany. Britain and France gave the Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for Hitler's pledge not to expand further.
To avoid conflict, the Allies accepted Hitler's demands for the Sudetenland.
"Peace in our time"
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain said this because he thought he had appeased Hitler at the Munich Conference.
The Soviet-German non-aggression pact. An alliance between Germany and the USSR.
September 1, 1939
The date that Hitler invaded Poland, the beginning of World War II.
Invasion of Poland
Hitler invaded this country on 9/1/39. It was the "Trigger Event" of WWII. Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later.
The Lightning War, a style of war the Germans used. It was fast. It started with bombing by planes, then tanks and motorcycles, and then the infantry.
German tanks that moved in large divisions during the Blitzkrieg.
Great Britain and France.
Partition of Poland
After Germany invaded Poland, the Soviet Union and Germany split Poland. The USSR took control of the East side as buffer against Germany.
Stalin took over Estonia, Lithuana, and Latvia to accept Soviet military bases. He also took Finland.
A line of defense for France along the German border made up of concrete fortifications, bunkers, turrets, etc. Germany attacked France through Belgium where the line was weakest.
Invasion of Denmark & Norway
Germany invaded these countries because they were on the Baltic Sea and of strategic importance. Hitler could use them as a base of naval operations. Also used to protect iron-ore shipments from Sweden.
Invasion of Netherlands and Belgium
Germany invaded these countries to get to France. Hitler bombed them and they surrendered.
The port where the Germans trapped the British and French troops on the beaches. Boats from Britain had to evacuate them.
The British operation to evacuate British and French soldiers from Dunkirk using many ships. 300,00 were rescued, 10,000 died, 40,000 were captured.
Invasion of France
June, 1940. The Germans came through with the Blitzkrieg and defeated them in 9 days.
The new French leader who agreed to the armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940. He cooperated with Germany. He ruled Vichy France.
This was the name for free France, not occupied by the Germans. It was located in the south 1/3 of France.
A group of French citizens who fought back at the Germans like a secret army. They would sabotage the Germans' plans. They were helped by the British.
These were people who helped the Germans, considered traitors. They were beaten, shot, and women had their heads shaved.
Operation Sea Lion
Hitler's plan to invade England. He first wanted to control the air.
The German air force. They fought against the RAF in the Battle of Britain. They had black crosses painted on the planes.
Royal Air Force/Spitfires
The British air force that defeated the Germans in the Battle of Britain. They had blue and red circles painted on the planes.
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
One of the greatest leaders of the 20th century, a great speaker, known for "our finest hour" and "fight on the beaches."
The British sent children and others at risk on trains to safety in the countryside to avoid German bombing.
Air raid shelters
Dugout huts in people's gardens for safety during a bombing raid. They were made of tin, covered with dirt. Also Underground stations were used as shelters.
Britain would turn off all the lights and cover lights so that German planes would not see where to bomb.
Cement turrets used to look out for Germans and to defend the coastline of England.
The bombing of London which involved blood, death and destruction.
Turning Point in the War
The Battle of Britain was the first time that Hitler was defeated and did not attain his goals. His plan had been to invade Britain but he had to control the air first. Even though his air force outnumbered the British and bombed ships, airfields, and cities, the British pilots' determination helped England win. Hitler gave up on invading Great Britain.
Invasion of the Soviet Union
Germany invaded this country, wanted to capture Leningrad, Moscow & Stalingrad. This was part of Hitler's plan get Lebensraum.
The strategy of Germany to invade the Soviet Union.
Siege of Leningrad
Lasted for 900 days. Hitler did this so his troops could divert to attack Moscow. The Germans blocked all supplies. The citizens ran out of coal, oil, water and food. They died. They could not bury bodies in the frozen earth.
Battle of Moscow
October, 1941. Operation Typhoon. The Germans got stuck in the mud when it rained, and then when it froze, they got frostbite and their vehicles would not start. The Germans got pushed back.
Stalin's scorched-earth policy
Stalin told the Soviets to burn buildings, crops, destroy anything that might help the Germans as they advanced.
Wanted American to stay out of Europe's problems, against more war. Opposed the Lend-Lease Act.
Selective Service Act
Drafted young men aged 21-35 years old to serve in the armed forces.
1939 Neutrality Act
Changed the previous ban on selling weapons or lending $ to nations at war. U.S. could now sell U.S. goods but nations at war had to pay cash and transport the goods on their own ships.
Roosevelt promised "your boys are not going to be sent into any foreign wars" and he won.
Allowed the U.S. to sell, lend or lease weapons to any country "vital to the defense of the United States." First country to use it was Great Britain.
Created by Roosevelt and Churchill, it's goal was the "final destruction of the Nazi tyranny" and it said 1) people would be free to choose their government, 2) free from fear and want, 3) disarmament, and 4) creation of a permanent system of general security.
Worshipped as a God, Commander in Chief of Army and Navy, also a dictator who crushed any opposition.
"The Imperial Way"
Nationalism in Japan. Blamed Europe and America for their problems and believed they were morally superior.
Militarism in Japan
Tradition of the Samurai (warrior). Emperor is head of the military and 5 leaders were: army, navy, finance, foreign affairs, and prime minister.
Imperialist goals of Japan
Economic depression = needed more materials = needed more land/territory.
Countries invaded by Japan before 1941.
Manchuria, Northern China (including Beijing and Shanghai), Indochina.
U.S. response to Japanese expansion
Economic pressure: 1) froze Japanese $ in U.S. banks and 2) stopped sale of oil and gasoline to Japan.
Believed Japan could beat the U.S. in a war and began planning to attack the U.S.
Japanese goal in attacking Pearl Harbor
Destroy the Pacific fleet and thereby prevent the U.S. from stopping Japanese expansion plans.
Admiral Yamamoto's inspiration
Plan for attacking Pearl Harbor was based on 1) a book (Great Pacific War) and 2) RAF attack on Italian fleet at harbor.
warning signs that were ignored
Japan crossing the Pacific with 4 carriers and huge fleet of ships, intercepted message asking about ship positions, and assuming planes showing on radar were U.S. not enemy.
"Tora, Tora, Tora"
Japanese code from pilots to indicate they had successfully surprised the U.S. with the attack.
December 7, 1941
Day that Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, Oahu, Hawaii.
Damage to ships/lives lost
19 ships lost and 2,403 Americans lost their lives.
Location of U.S. aircraft carriers
Not in the harbor, out to sea, and so saved because the Japanese pilots could not find them.
Battleship that was hit and its ammo blew up killing over a 1000 people. It sunk and remains an underwater graveyard today.
A steward on the USS Virginia who assisted his injured captain and shot down 2 Jap. planes with a machine gun and so was the first African-American awarded the Navy Cross.
Other Japanese targets on 12/7/41
Japan also attacked and won Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, and Hong Kong.
"I fear we have awakened a sleeping giant"
Said by Admiral Yamamoto in reference to attacking the U.S. and not really succeeding in destroying the fleet. The U.S. would recover and fight back.
"A date which will live in infamy"
Famous quote from FDR's speech before Congress announcing the attack on Pearl Harbor and asking Congress for a Declaration of War against Japan.
Declaration of War
FDR asked Congress for this on December 8, 1941. Congress approved.
Great Britain, France, United States, China, and USSR.
Germany, Italy and Japan.
Nickname for U.S. soldiers because all the uniforms and equipment said "Government Issue" on them.
WACs and WAVES
Women's Army Corps and Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service (Navy).
War Production Board
Converted industries to make goods for the war effort (tanks, weapons, etc.)
Office of Price Administration
Set limits on prices and rents.
National War Labor Board
Resolved labor disputes.
Office of War Information
Promoted patriotism to support the war.
Revenue Act of 1942 and war bonds
The way the government financed the $320 billion it cost to fight the war by establishing an income tax and borrowing money.
People lost their loved ones in war.
Consumers could only buy limited amounts, issued coupon books.
People grew their own fruits and vegetables.
Scrap metal drives
People collected scrap metal (toys, fences) for the war industries.
Protective measures in case of attack. Example: plane spotters.
Opportunities/inequalities for women
New jobs for women when men went to war. New roles in society. Not paid as much as men and lost their job when men returned.
African-American pilots who flew missions in Europe and shot down more than 200 enemy aircraft.
Discrimination/Fair Employment Practices Commission
No discrimination in government or defense industries because of race, religion, color or national origin.
Migration of African-Americans
Moved North into cities to get jobs during the war. This caused racial tension.
Navajo Code Talkers
Talked in code using their native language to confuse the enemy. The Japanese never broke the code.
U.S. labor recruited people from Mexico to be farmers and railroad workers because other men had moved to cities to get jobs.
Japanese people who were born in the U.S.
U.S. attitude toward Japanese Americans
Fear and hatred. We feared their loyalty if the Japanese invaded and sabotage.
Executive Order 9066
FDR directed the army to relocate 100,000+ Japanese Americans from the west coast to detention camps in the desert.
California, Oregon, Washington, and Southern Arizona.
JAs had to move quickly and could only take a few possession and no pets. They had to abandon their home and businesses or sell them at a loss.
Conditions in the internment camps
Holes in the buildings, sandy, no heat, no plumbing, bad food, crowded.
Korematsu vs. United States
Supreme Court Case in which Korematsu was trying to avoid the camps but the Court upheld the Executive Order saying it was justified during "circumstances of emergency and peril."
Japanese-Americans in the armed forces
JAs joined the army in 1943, translated enemy documents and some were highly decorated for service in Europe.
1988 apology and reparations
Congress apologized about the Japanese internment and gave each survivor $20,000.
Allies' strategy vs. Axis
Defeat Hitler first, then deal with Japan. Europe was desperate.
Allies' strategy vs. Hitler
Allies not ready to fight Germany in Europe, so invade North Africa first.
General Erwin Rommel
"Desert Fox." Commander of Axis forces in Africa. Goal was to capture Suez Canal to get access to oil.
Axis Army in Africa.
Field Marshall Montgomery
Commander of British forces in Africa. Beat Rommel at Battles of El Alamein and forced him to retreat to Tunisia.
Battles of El Alamein
Battles in Egypt in which British defeated Axis because they had better supply lines and outnumbered the Germans.
Joint US-UK campaign to invade Morocco and Algeria led by General Eisenhower. Included 3 amphibious landings and had little resistance from French forces. First military action of the US vs. Germany.
General Dwight Eisenhower
Commander of Operation Torch and Operation Overlord. Made the decision to postpone D-Day invasion by one day due to bad weather.
Battle of Kasserine Pass
Battle between US and Axis forces in Tunisia. Forced Rommel to move north and then he was trapped.
Allies' advantages after Africa
Many target choices and better sea power.
Invasion of Sicily
Allies' strategy to get into Italy and then Europe. Also would enable Allies to protect ships in the Mediterranean Sea.
Successful Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943.
15th Army Group
Led by Harold Alexander. Comprised of US and UK forces, it carried out Operation Husky.
General George Patton
Leader of U.S. 7th Army in Operation Husky.
Overthrow of Mussolini
Occurred during Operation Husky. Action taken by Fascist Grand Council which resulted in arrest of Mussolini.
He became the leader of Italy after Mussolini was overthrown. He dissolved the Fascist Party and signed an armistice agreement with the Allies.
Rescue of Mussolini
Germany paratroopers carried out this action in Italy.
1.) North/Central Italy - Italian Social Republic - led by Mussolini - Axis. 2.) South Italy - led by Badoglio - Allies.
Invasion of Italian mainland
Allies landed at the "toe", the "heel" and the "shin." Hard fighting against the Germans.
Capture of Rome
This action by the Allies in June, 1944 resulted in the fall of the first Axis city.
German goals re: Stalingrad
1) Stop Soviet production of arms, 2) cut transport links to south, 3) get access to oil fields, and 4) Hitler's hatred of Stalin.
General Friedrich Paulus
Leader of German forces in Battle of Stalingrad. Made a Field Marshal by Hitler but surrendered anyway.
German problems in Stalingrad
Supply lines too long, heavy losses, fatigue, cold, hunger, lack of medical supplies.
Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad
Encircled the German troops, trapping them.
Hitler's instructions to Paulus
"Stand and Fight" and "Fight to the death."
German surrender at Stalingrad
91,000 frozen, starving German soldiers became prisoners.
Impact of Battle of Stalingrad
Turning point in the war because: 1) stopped German advance into USSR, 2) used German resources, 3) destroyed 2 German armies, and 4) humiliated the Germans.
Allied bombing targets in Germany
Factories, rail yards, dock yards, bridges, dams, towns and cities.
Goals of Allied air war
1) destroy Germany's war industries and 2) destroy the people's homes to destroy their will to fight.
Allied bombers who broke up German dams with special bombs.
B-17s and B-24s
Allied bombers. "Flighing fortresses" and "Liberators." Needed long-range escort.
Fighter that provided long-range escort to Allied bombers.
Allied plan to cross the English Channel and invade Europe. The invasion site chosen was 60 miles of beach in Normany, France.
2,400 mile fortification built by Hitler along the coast of Europe to prevent Allies from invading. Concrete bunkers, barbed wires, mines and underwater obstacles.
Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force - Eisenhower - in charge of Operation Overlord.
Invaded by US Division. Currents swept boats off course.
Invaded by US Division. A "killing field" as the first wave of forces failed. Site of the hardest fighting on D-Day with over 3,000 casualties.
Invaded by UK Division that brought "Hobart's Funnies" with them.
Invaded by Canadian Division. 1/3 of landing craft were destroyed by mines and beach obstacles.
Invaded by UK Division that were prevented from taking city of Caen by 21st Panzer Division.
Deception plan to keep Normandy invasion site a secret and make Hitler think the invasion would take place at Calais. Included a fake army, with false radio signals, but a real commander, General George Patton.
Dummy paratroopers that were part of Operation Bodyguard.
German secret code machine. The Allies managed to crack the code and read German messages.
weather problem on June 5, 1944
A bad storm threatened the plan. Eisenhower decided to postpone for one day.
June 6, 1944
D-Day for Operation Overlord. Invasion of Normandy France by over 5,000 ships & 1,000 planes.
Airborne goal on D-Day
Confuse the Germans and prevent counterattack during beach landings.
Captured by British airborne troops using gliders.
Clickers used by airborne troops to identify each other.
Airborne problems on D-Day
1) Gliders crashed, 2) men killed by anti-aircraft fire, 3) men landed off target, 4) men drowned.
First French town liberated by the Allies.
Channel crossing conditions
4 hours of rough seas. Many soldiers were seasick.
Obstacles at Omaha Beach
Steep bluffs (cliffs) and well-defended concrete bunkers.
Factors that turned tide at Omaha Beach
Destroyers came close to the shore to fire at Germans and individual soldiers took the lead and got shocked men to move up the beach.
Pointe du Hoc
Rangers had to climb 100 foot cliff while being attacked by Germans to destroy Howitzer cannon battery.
Modified tanks such as the Crocodile (flame-thrower) and Crab (chains that flailed to destroy mines).
Over 150,000 Allies landed and over 5,000 casualties. Succeeded in breaking through the Atlantic Wall. Largest amphibious operation in history.
Liberation of Paris
Started with an uprising by the French resistance, this event in August, 1944, included action by General Patton. German generals surrendered. French and American soldiers marched in victory parades.
Battle of the Bulge
Huge battle between US and German forces in the Ardennes Forest near the German border. The German offensive pushed the Allies back for a while, but they eventually defeated the Germans.
Murder of 84 US Prisoners of War in a field.
Line of fortifications on the German border that included tank traps and defensive forts. Crossed by US troops after Battle of the Bulge.
President Harry Truman
Took over when President Roosevelt died of a stroke on April 12, 1945.
Soviet advance on Berlin
Soviets drove Germans through Poland back to Germany. Made Hitler realize situation was hopeless.
Suicide with gunshot and cyanide pills in bunker with wife Eva Braun.
May 7, 1945
Day that the Germans unconditionally surrendered to the Allies.
May 8, 1945
Day that the Allies celebrated that they had defeated the Germans and the war in Europe was over.
Battle of the Philippines
Dec., 1941-April, 1942. Japan attacked the Allies. General MacArthur left, saying "I shall return." Allies surrendered.
General Douglas MacArthur
Commander of Allied forces in the Pacific. He went to TMI. When he left the Philippines to take command in Australia, he did not want to leave and said "I shall return."
Bataan Death March
Japanese forced Allied prisoners of war to walk 60 miles to a camp. They also were crammed in box cars for some of the journey. 22,000 prisoners died due to heat, starvation, sickness and mistreatment by the Japanese.
Battle of Midway
June 4-7, 1942. U.S. cracked Japanese code and planned an ambush. We successfully destroyed 4 Japanese carriers and 332 aircraft. The USS Yorktown was hit. It was a turning point in the Pacific War, with the Allies now winning.
Admiral Chester Nimitz
Commander of the U.S. Pacific fleet. Planned the ambush of the Japanese at Midway.
The Allies' plan was to take one island at a time in order to advance toward Japan. They would then be in a position to invade Japan.
New bombers, "superfortresses," were used to bomb Tokyo and the cities of Japan. The Japanese tried to shoot them down. They were used to deliver the atomic bombs to Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Battle of Guadalcanal
Aug., 1942 - Feb., 1943. Allies attacked this location in the Solomon Islands near Australia. It was the first Allied offensive and it stopped the "Tokyo Express" resupply effort. The Allies won.
Battle of Leyte Gulf
October, 1944. Japan attacked this location in the Philippine Sea. MacArthur returned. It was the largest naval battle of WWII. The Allies won and destroyed the Japanese Navy.
Battle of Iwo Jima
Feb. 19, 1945. Allies (U.S. marines) attacked this island 660 miles south of Tokyo. The Japanese hid in bunkers in volcanic rock. It was the bloodiest marine battle ever. 6 marines raised the U.S. flag on Mount Suribachi. The Allies won. It was then used as a landing site for B-29s.
Battle of Okinawa
April - June, 1945. The Allies attacked this island south of Japan. It was heavily defended by the Japanese in a medieval castle. There were many kamikaze attacks. The Allies won and planned to use the island as a base to attack Japan.
Japanese suicide pilots who would fly into ships. They were willing to give their life for the empire. They were used extensively at the Battle of Okinawa because they were desperate.
He was a Jewish scientist who fled from Germany to America. His ideas on fission helped the development of the atomic bomb. He warned Roosevelt in a letter that the Nazis might be trying to build an atomic bomb.
The process by which a neutron collides with the nucleus of an atom, splitting it into two. It creates a chain reaction of energy and results in a huge explosion.
A top secret program that was not approved until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. It developed 2 bombs, one made with uranium and the other with plutonium. It was directed by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer. It was based at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Trinity Atomic Bomb Test
July 16, 1945. First atomic bomb used. It was named Gadget and was a plutonium bomb. The explosion was equal to 20,000 tons of TNT, the shock wave was felt over 100 miles away and the mushroom cloud was over 7.5 miles high.
The Allied plan to invade Japan on November 1, 1945. They estimated how many soldiers might die in the invasion. The estimates were .5 to one million would die. It was also estimated that 1/3 to 1/2 of the landing craft would be destroyed by kamikazes. This plan was canceled when Japan refused to surrender and we went ahead with dropping the atomic bomb instead.
The U.S., UK and China told Japan that they needed to surrender or face "complete and utter destruction." The Japanese refused to surrender.
August 6, 1945, at 8:15 am, the uranium bomb "Little Boy" was dropped on a major military city in Japan by the Enola Gay. 4.7 miles were destroyed. It killed 90,000-166,000 people.
August 9, 1945, at 10:50 am, the plutonium bomb "Fat Man" was dropped on a military city in Japan where the Mitsubishi torpedo factory was located. It was dropped by Bock's Car. 40% of the city was destroyed and the blast killed 45,000-75,000 instantly and 80,000 by the end of 1945.
Radiation effects and fallout
It caused skin burns, death, radiation sickness and cancer. It descended through the atmosphere and lasted a long time.
The U.S. had conquered islands near Japan. After Japan refused to surrender, the U.S. decided to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan. Japan surrendered, fearing the U.S. had more nuclear bombs to drop. The Japanese admitted defeat on August 14, 1945. Emperor Hirohito made the decision to surrender.
August 15, 1945, the Allies celebrated the victory over Japan in the Pacific War. It was known as Victory over Japan Day. There was a huge party in Times Square, New York.
Arguments for the bomb
1. Japan would never surrender. 2. Saved lives of U.S. soldiers. 3. Japan attacked the U.S. first. 4. It ended the war quickly. 5. It was used against military targets. 6. More Japanese were killed in fire-bombing of cities.
Arguments against the bomb
1. Killed innocent people and made many people sick. 2. Damaged the environment. 3. Created an arms race with the Soviet Union. 4. Cost a lot of money. 5. Could now be used against us. 6. Terms of surrender offered the Japanese were too harsh.
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