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Arts and Humanities
MM World War II ALL- NOT ON NOTE CARD
Terms in this set (84)
A government that does not believe there are any limits to its authority and tries to control every aspect of people's lives.
A book written by Hitler when he was in prison. "My Struggle."
The National Socialist Party of Germany. A fascist party led by Hitler that became the only political party in Germany.
Hitler believed Germans were a superior race. The Aryans had blonde hair and blue eyes.
Land in the west of Czechoslovakia. HItler lied and said Germans were being mistreated and so he wanted to take it over. At the Munich Conference Hitler was given the Sudetenland to appease him.
A meeting of Britain, France and Germany. Britain and France gave the Sudetenland to Germany in exchange for Hitler's pledge not to expand further.
"Peace in our time"
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain said this because he thought he had appeased Hitler at the Munich Conference.
The Soviet-German non-aggression pact. An alliance between Germany and the USSR.
September 1, 1939
The date that Hitler invaded Poland, the beginning of World War II.
The Lightning War, a style of war the Germans used. It was fast. It started with bombing by planes, then tanks and motorcycles, and then the infantry.
Partition of Poland
After Germany invaded Poland, the Soviet Union and Germany split Poland. The USSR took control of the East side as buffer against Germany.
Stalin took over Estonia, Lithuana, and Latvia to accept Soviet military bases. He also took Finland.
A line of defense for France along the German border made up of concrete fortifications, bunkers, turrets, etc. Germany attacked France through Belgium where the line was weakest.
The British operation to evacuate British and French soldiers from Dunkirk using many ships. 300,00 were rescued, 10,000 died, 40,000 were captured.
The new French leader who agreed to the armistice with Germany on June 22, 1940. He cooperated with Germany. He ruled Vichy France.
This was the name for free France, not occupied by the Germans. It was located in the south 1/3 of France.
A group of French citizens who fought back at the Germans like a secret army. They would sabotage the Germans' plans. They were helped by the British.
Operation Sea Lion
Hitler's plan to invade England. He first wanted to control the air.
The German air force. They fought against the RAF in the Battle of Britain. They had black crosses painted on the planes.
Royal Air Force/Spitfires
The British air force that defeated the Germans in the Battle of Britain. They had blue and red circles painted on the planes.
Prime Minister Winston Churchill
One of the greatest leaders of the 20th century, a great speaker, known for "our finest hour" and "fight on the beaches."
Cement turrets used to look out for Germans and to defend the coastline of England.
Turning Point in the War
The Battle of Britain was the first time that Hitler was defeated and did not attain his goals. His plan had been to invade Britain but he had to control the air first. Even though his air force outnumbered the British and bombed ships, airfields, and cities, the British pilots' determination helped England win. Hitler gave up on invading Great Britain.
The strategy of Germany to invade the Soviet Union.
Siege of Leningrad
Lasted for 900 days. Hitler did this so his troops could divert to attack Moscow. The Germans blocked all supplies. The citizens ran out of coal, oil, water and food. They died. They could not bury bodies in the frozen earth.
Stalin's scorched-earth policy
Stalin told the Soviets to burn buildings, crops, destroy anything that might help the Germans as they advanced.
Wanted American to stay out of Europe's problems, against more war. Opposed the Lend-Lease Act.
Selective Service Act
Drafted young men aged 21-35 years old to serve in the armed forces.
"The Imperial Way"
Nationalism in Japan. Blamed Europe and America for their problems and believed they were morally superior.
Militarism in Japan
Tradition of the Samurai (warrior). Emperor is head of the military and 5 leaders were: army, navy, finance, foreign affairs, and prime minister.
U.S. response to Japanese expansion
Economic pressure: 1) froze Japanese $ in U.S. banks and 2) stopped sale of oil and gasoline to Japan.
warning signs that were ignored
Japan crossing the Pacific with 4 carriers and huge fleet of ships, intercepted message asking about ship positions, and assuming planes showing on radar were U.S. not enemy.
"Tora, Tora, Tora"
Japanese code from pilots to indicate they had successfully surprised the U.S. with the attack.
Location of U.S. aircraft carriers
Not in the harbor, out to sea, and so saved because the Japanese pilots could not find them.
Battleship that was hit and its ammo blew up killing over a 1000 people. It sunk and remains an underwater graveyard today.
Other Japanese targets on 12/7/41
Japan also attacked and won Guam, Wake Island, the Philippines, Thailand, Malaya, and Hong Kong.
WACs and WAVES
Women's Army Corps and Women Appointed for Volunteer Emergency Service (Navy).
War Production Board
Converted industries to make goods for the war effort (tanks, weapons, etc.)
Office of Price Administration
Set limits on prices and rents.
National War Labor Board
Resolved labor disputes.
Office of War Information
Promoted patriotism to support the war.
Revenue Act of 1942 and war bonds
The way the government financed the $320 billion it cost to fight the war by establishing an income tax and borrowing money.
People lost their loved ones in war.
Consumers could only buy limited amounts, issued coupon books.
People grew their own fruits and vegetables.
Scrap metal drives
People collected scrap metal (toys, fences) for the war industries.
Opportunities/inequalities for women
New jobs for women when men went to war. New roles in society. Not paid as much as men and lost their job when men returned.
African-American pilots who flew missions in Europe and shot down more than 200 enemy aircraft.
Migration of African-Americans
Moved North into cities to get jobs during the war. This caused racial tension.
Navajo Code Talkers
Talked in code using their native language to confuse the enemy. The Japanese never broke the code.
Japanese people who were born in the U.S.
U.S. attitude toward Japanese Americans
Fear and hatred. We feared their loyalty if the Japanese invaded and sabotage.
Joint US-UK campaign to invade Morocco and Algeria led by General Eisenhower. Included 3 amphibious landings and had little resistance from French forces. First military action of the US vs. Germany.
Successful Allied invasion of Sicily in 1943.
Overthrow of Mussolini
Occurred during Operation Husky. Action taken by Fascist Grand Council which resulted in arrest of Mussolini.
He became the leader of Italy after Mussolini was overthrown. He dissolved the Fascist Party and signed an armistice agreement with the Allies.
Rescue of Mussolini
Germany paratroopers carried out this action in Italy.
Soviet counter-offensive at Stalingrad
Encircled the German troops, trapping them.
Allied plan to cross the English Channel and invade Europe. The invasion site chosen was 60 miles of beach in Normany, France.
Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Force - Eisenhower - in charge of Operation Overlord.
Invaded by US Division. Currents swept boats off course.
Invaded by US Division. A "killing field" as the first wave of forces failed. Site of the hardest fighting on D-Day with over 3,000 casualties.
Invaded by UK Division that were prevented from taking city of Caen by 21st Panzer Division.
Deception plan to keep Normandy invasion site a secret and make Hitler think the invasion would take place at Calais. Included a fake army, with false radio signals, but a real commander, General George Patton.
Dummy paratroopers that were part of Operation Bodyguard.
weather problem on June 5, 1944
A bad storm threatened the plan. Eisenhower decided to postpone for one day.
Captured by British airborne troops using gliders.
First French town liberated by the Allies.
Obstacles at Omaha Beach
Steep bluffs (cliffs) and well-defended concrete bunkers.
Pointe du Hoc
Rangers had to climb 100 foot cliff while being attacked by Germans to destroy Howitzer cannon battery.
Murder of 84 US Prisoners of War in a field.
Line of fortifications on the German border that included tank traps and defensive forts. Crossed by US troops after Battle of the Bulge.
President Harry Truman
Took over when President Roosevelt died of a stroke on April 12, 1945.
Soviet advance on Berlin
Soviets drove Germans through Poland back to Germany. Made Hitler realize situation was hopeless.
May 7, 1945
Day that the Germans unconditionally surrendered to the Allies.
May 8, 1945
Day that the Allies celebrated that they had defeated the Germans and the war in Europe was over.
A top secret program that was not approved until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. It developed 2 bombs, one made with uranium and the other with plutonium. It was directed by Dr. Robert Oppenheimer. It was based at Los Alamos, New Mexico.
Trinity Atomic Bomb Test
July 16, 1945. First atomic bomb used. It was named Gadget and was a plutonium bomb. The explosion was equal to 20,000 tons of TNT, the shock wave was felt over 100 miles away and the mushroom cloud was over 7.5 miles high.
The Allied plan to invade Japan on November 1, 1945. They estimated how many soldiers might die in the invasion. The estimates were .5 to one million would die. It was also estimated that 1/3 to 1/2 of the landing craft would be destroyed by kamikazes. This plan was canceled when Japan refused to surrender and we went ahead with dropping the atomic bomb instead.
The U.S., UK and China told Japan that they needed to surrender or face "complete and utter destruction." The Japanese refused to surrender.
August 9, 1945, at 10:50 am, the plutonium bomb "Fat Man" was dropped on a military city in Japan where the Mitsubishi torpedo factory was located. It was dropped by Bock's Car. 40% of the city was destroyed and the blast killed 45,000-75,000 instantly and 80,000 by the end of 1945.
Radiation effects and fallout
It caused skin burns, death, radiation sickness and cancer. It descended through the atmosphere and lasted a long time.
The U.S. had conquered islands near Japan. After Japan refused to surrender, the U.S. decided to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan. Japan surrendered, fearing the U.S. had more nuclear bombs to drop. The Japanese admitted defeat on August 14, 1945. Emperor Hirohito made the decision to surrender.
August 15, 1945, the Allies celebrated the victory over Japan in the Pacific War. It was known as Victory over Japan Day. There was a huge party in Times Square, New York.
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